Tobacco Cultivation

This presentation is done by 2010/2011 batch of Export Agriculture students of Uva Wellassa

  1. Dulminie Nanayakkara
    This presentation is done by 2010/2011 batch of Export Agriculture students of Uva Wellassa
    Transcript Header:
    Tobacco Cultivation
    Transcript Body:
    • 1. Nicotiana tabacum
    • 2. Introduction • Native to Central & South America • Leaves are the economically important part • Introduced by Portuguese to South Asia • High valued cash crop
    • 3. Tobacco production in world • World production – 6.2 million Mt (2007) • Extent – 3.7 million ha (2007) • Major producing countries China Brazil India USA
    • 4. Tobacco production in SL • Chewing tobacco Production – 2438 Mt Extent – 1302 Ha • Cigar tobacco Production – 1327 Mt Extent – 829 Ha • Ranked in 62nd place in world production
    • 5. Major producing districts • Puttalam • Kurunegala • Mannar • Vawniya • Mathale
    • 6. Classification • Kindom – Plantae • Division – Magnoliophyta • Class – Magnoliopsida • Order – Solanales • Family – Solanaceae • Genus – Nicotiana • Species - tabacum
    • 7. Cultivated species of Tobacco • Nicotiana rustia • Nicotina tabacum
    • 8. Chemical composition • Economically important chemicals are , Nicotine Nornic
    • 9. Commercial type of Tobacco • Flue cured Tobacco • Bidi Tobacco • Cigar & Cheroot Tobacco • Chewing Tobacco • Hokah Tobacco
    • 10. Recommended varieties Flue cured (Virginia ) Air cured (Burley) K 326 Blanket A1 K 399 CSC 202 SPG 108 RGH 4
    • 11. Climatic re • Tropical crop in origin but can be grown in subtropical and temperate regions • Temperature – 15-35C • Relative Humidity – 85-90% • Rainfall – 500-1250mm • Well distributed rainfall through out the year
    • 12. Suitable soils • Sandy surface soil – 15-25cm depth • A yellowish / reddish sandy clay sub soil depth of 150cm • PH - 5.5-6.5 • Very low chloride content ( less than 100 ppm)
    • 13. Raising nursery & production of seedlings • Types of nurseries 1. Ground bed 2. CD trays and paper pots 3. Float nurseries
    • 14. Float nurseries • Intensive method • Not common in SL
    • 15. CD trays & paper pots
    • 16. Ground bed nursery • Commonly using method in SL
    • 17. Nursery site selection • Avoid old nursery sites • Fine tilth • Flat/ low steep
    • 18. Nursery lay out • Raised beds • Length- convenient length ( maximum 10m) • Width – 120cm • Height – 15cm • Space in between beds – 45-60cm
    • 19. Seed bed sterilization • Two methods • Rabbing • Chemical sterilization
    • 20. Rabbing • Spread 15-20 cm thick layer of leaves , weeds , paddy straw over the soil surface and burning
    • 21. Seed bed sterilization(cont’d) 2. Chemical sterilization • Can use, Bordeaux mixture Choloropicrin Dichloropropane Methyl Bromide Calcium Cyanamid
    • 22. Structuring – Arches –Pegs • To provide adequate shade
    • 23. Tobacco Seeds • Minute seeds • Low food reserves • Approximately 16000 seeds/g
    • 24. Seed Treatment • To avoid seed borne diseases, treated with – 2.5% Formaline solution – 0.25% solution of Dithane • Soak in 50ppm gibberelin acid solution for 48 hours to hasten germination
    • 25. Seed rate • 3.5 Kg/ha • Higher seed rate – Over crowding of seedlings – Induces diseases- “damping off”
    • 26. Sowing seed in nursery • Mixed with ash for fine sand – 1:15 or 1:20 Ratio • To uniform distribution on the beds
    • 27. • 2 methods • Broadcasting • Sown in shallow furrows
    • 28. Broadcasting • Treated seeds are sown broadcast on the surface of the beds • Later mixed in the soil up to 1.5-2.0 cm depth using a rake and compacted
    • 29. Sown in shallow furrows • Seeds sow in shallow furrows of 2.0 cm depth and 5.0 cm distance from each other • Reduce over crowding
    • 30. Mulching • Mulching materials – Paddy straw – Sugar cane leaves • To prevent water losses • Remove gradually with the germination
    • 31. Aftercare operations 1. Sunning 2. Watering 3. Clipping 4. Weeding
    • 32. Sunning • Remove mulch and the cover • When cotyledons + 2 leaves stage (Approximately 11 days) • Start with ½ hour per day • Fully open after 28-30 days
    • 33. Clipping • Removal of leaves • Reduce evapotranspiration • Induce root growth • Increase nutrient uptake
    • 34. Watering • Tobacco is generally considered a drought-tolerant plant and produces better yields with less than desirable moisture than with excessive soil moisture. Under conditions of inadequate soil moisture • The root system is susceptible to water saturated soil conditions, and over-application of irrigation should be avoided.
    • 35. • Plant beds require a uniform supply of soil moisture. Tobacco seed germination is dependent on temperature, light and soil moisture • Initially watering can be done in every evening • No water accumulation at any spot of the bed • Reduce in the hardening period • Immediately after transplanting, tobacco should be irrigated with about 0.5 inch of water. This helps to settle the soil around the roots and provides moisture to stimulate fast root development.
    • 36. • Surface and sprinkler irrigation are mostly practised. • The quality of the water is important in selecting the most suitable irrigation method, e.g. sprinkler irrigation should be avoided when only low quality water is available.
    • 37. Fertilizer Application • Basal application of 50g of Ammonium sulphate, 100g of Potassium sulphate, 300g of Superphosphate and 100g of Dolomite per 10m2 bed • Application of 40g of 4% Endosulfan dust per bed or one day before sowing per 10m2 bed
    • 38. • After germination of seeds, apply ammonium sulphate twise at 4 days interval at 50g per bed • Thereafter thrice at 4 days interval at 50g per bed
    • 39. Disease Control • To control fungal diseases spraying 0.03% Bordeaux mixture at the rate of 12 L for every 40m2 • To control of pests spraying 0.5% carbaryl
    • 40. Transplanting If you are growing your tobacco seedlings in a greenhouse or indoors they should be "hardened off" before you transplant into your field or garden Methods of transplanting • Ridge and furrow method • Flat bed method
    • 41. Ridge and Furrow Method • Ridge planting width – 60cm space between ridges – 30-45 cm height – 30cm space between plants - 90
    • 42. Flat Bed Method • Not widely use • Width – 150cm • Distance between plants – 90cm
    • 43. Transplanting • Use 7-9 weeks old healthy seedlings • Cease the watering of beds 2 weeks prior to transplanting • Watering well preceding day of pulling to reduce the root damaging
    • 44. • Transplant soon after uprooting • Moist the field for quick establishment of seedlings • Gap filling 2 weeks after transplanting • Planting density – 15000plants per ha • Tobacco can be ready to harvest for curing about 60 days after transplanting
    • 45. Pests In Tobacco  Aphids  Cutworms
    • 46. Hornworms Wireworms
    • 47.  Flea beetles Budworms
    • 48. Thrips Grasshoppers
    • 49. Pest & Disease Management • A certain amount of insect damage does not reduce crop value enough to pay for the cost of treatment • Tobacco plants often compensate for insect damage • Therefore Integrated pest management is usually practiced which consist of physical, biological and chemical control methods
    • 50. Special management practices De topping  removal of apical bud  Done in button stage(flowering stage)  18-20 leaves in the plant
    • 51. De suckering  Removal of emerging auxiliary bud  2 weeks after de topping  De suckering agents are used to stop the growth of suckers & prevent from pest attacks  Ex: ARMOUR-1, ART-78
    • 52. Harvesting  70 days after transplanting  First 2-3 leaves to ripen should not be harvested, because it has a low level of solids content undesirable for manufacturing  Only mature, ripen leaves should be harvested  Mature leaves exhibit a slight yellowing and break off the stalk easier  The best quality cures occur when the tobacco is allowed to mature in the field
    • 53. Harvesting methods 1.Priming method 2.Cut stalk method Priming method Removing 5 lower leaves in every 10-12 days 5-6 harvesting times For high quality production
    • 54. Cut stalk method Done in 3-4 weeks after a certain amount of the plants in the field have broken buds Whole plant is cut at the base of the stem The plant is then flipped upside down and the leaves cure while still attached to the plant Removing the leaves from the stalks is called “stripping”
    • 55. Curing of Tobacco  Done to enhance the leaf's natural aroma  Allowed to undergo fermenting reactions under controlled temperature & humidity  Done in the barn  Leaves will be dehydrated over a period of time in curing barns  4 common methods I. flue-curing II. air-curing III.fire-curing IV.sun-curing
    • 56. Flue-curing  Tobacco leaves kept in an enclosed heated area for about 1week  Not directly exposed to smoke  Fastest method for curing  flue cured is also called bright tobacco, because flue curing turns its leaves gold, orange, or yellow.
    • 57. Fire-curing  Smoke from a low-burning fire on the barn floor infuses the leaves for 3-10 weeks  Leaves contain distinctive smoky aroma and flavour  Produced tobacco is low in sugar and high in nicotine
    • 58. Air curing  sheltered from wind and sun in a well ventilated chamber for about 6-8 weeks  Low in sugar, which gives the tobacco smoke a light, sweet flavor, and high in nicotine Sun-curing  dries uncovered in the sun  low in sugar and nicotine
    • 59. Bulking  Leaves of different varieties must be bulked separately  Leaves from different stalk position must also be kept separate  The bulks have to be covered with polythene sheets to compact the bulk without damage and to prevent gain or loss of moisture
    • 60. Grading  Sort according to; manufacturing purpose  plant position styles  external appreciation  Important factors to be considered; - overall colour - blemish - damage - texture - leaf length - ripeness
    • 61. Grading Con’t • 3468888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888888888888 8888888888888888888888888888888888 888
    • 62. Tobacco Products • Cigar • Cigarettes • Cheroots • Bidi • Snuff • Chewing tobacco • Loose leaf • Dipping tobacco • Cigarillos • Topical tobacco paste • Tobacco water
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