The Solar System is composed of the Sun and the celestial objects which are
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- The Solar System
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- 1. THE SOLAR SYSTEM by Prof. Liwayway Memije-Cruz
- 2. CelestialCelestial mechanics - thebranch of astronomy which deals with the motions of celestial objects . .
- 3. Motionsof Heavenly Bodies
- 4. Celestial Sphere
- 5. Constellationshavebeen an important part of human society and folkloresincewe humanslived in caves and even before. Thefascinating scenariosthat weseein the night sky areso largeand so beautiful that wehavefelt avery strong urgeto attach importanceto them. Peoplethuscreate very interesting storiesand legendsin an attempt to explain theselarge"pictures" in thesky.
- 6. Zodiac: twelveconstellationsthat thesun goesthrough
- 7. Ecliptic: thepath that thesun tracesout on thesphere
- 8. TheEarth in theCelestial Sphere
- 9. Earth’sMotion Rotation Revolution Rotation of theearth describesthespinning of theearth around its axis, resulting in the24 hour phenomenon of day and night over theearth. Revolution on the other hand describesthe movement of theearth around thesun over a period of oneyear, causing seasonsto occur.
- 10. Timeand Clocks
- 11. A Sidereal Day Theearth spins onceon itsaxis every 23 hours, 56 minutes(rounded to thenearest minute). Thetime to completeone completerotation is known asa sidereal day and isquite different from the traditional concept of a"day
- 12. A Solar Day For astronomers, theday actually beginswhen thesun crossesthe meridian. Wecan call this"high noon" ... an old cowboy phrasewhich means that thesun isat itshighest point in the day. You will soon seethat theclock rarely reads12:00 at thistime The rotation of theearth on itsaxis eventually forcesthesun to set in the west, riseagain in theeast, and move back to themeridian (high noon). This definesa solarday - high noon to high noon. Thefirst thing you haveto realizeisthat theearth spinsslightly morethan onefull rotation during a solar day.
- 13. 1. theplanetsin theSolar System orbit around theSun1. theplanetsin theSolar System orbit around theSun 2. orbitsarealmost perfect - circle: Sun isthecenter of the2. orbitsarealmost perfect - circle: Sun isthecenter of the circlecircle 3. someorbitsareoval shaped or “stretched out” circles–3. someorbitsareoval shaped or “stretched out” circles– ellipses: theSun isat the“focus” of theellipseellipses: theSun isat the“focus” of theellipse
- 14. Aphelion and PerihelionAphelion and Perihelion •Perihelion - theplace wheretheplanet isclosest to theSun. •Aphelion - when theplanet isfurthest away from the Sun. •“Aphelion" and "perihelion" comefrom the Greek language: "helios" mean sSun, "peri" means near, and "apo" meansaway from.
- 15. Theduration of asolar day variesthroughout theyear. That is, if you wereto measurethetimefrom high noon to thenext high noon, you would get adifferent valueevery day. Why? Kepler'sSecond Law tells usthat thespeed of theearth's revolution around thesun varies... moving fastest at perihelion and slowest at aphelion. Therotation rateof theearth, remains fixed At aphelion: solar day is fast At perihelion solar day is longer
- 16. Seasons occur due to Earth’sSeasons occur due to Earth’s revolutionrevolution
- 17. Motion of Stars • Somestars risedirectly east heading to theright, then crossthehigh southern sky, and eventually set directly west. • Other starsrisein thesoutheast and follow shorter, lower arcsacrossthe south beforesetting in thesouthwest. • And in thenorth, therearemany starsthat never riseor set at all; these “circumpolar stars” follow counter-clockwisecircles
- 18. Planetsin theSolar System Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
- 19. Inner Planetsor Terrestrial Planets characterized by their dense, rocky composition few or no moons, and lack of ring systems composed largely of minerals with high melting pointssuch assilicatesto form the planets’ solid crustsand semi-liquid mantles, and metallic dust grainssuch asiron, which formstheir cores. threeof thefour inner planetshaveatmosphere. All haveimpact craters, and all but onepossesstectonic surfacefeatures, such asrift valleysand volcanoes.
- 20. TheOuter Planetsor Jovian Planets
- 21. TheOuter Planetsor Jovian Planets • Collectively makeup 99 percent of themassknown to orbit theSun. • Jupiter and Saturn aretruegiants, at 318 and 95 Earth masses, respectively, and composed largely of hydrogen and helium • Uranusand Neptuneareboth substantially smaller, being only 14 and 17 Earth masses, respectively. • Their atmospherescontain asmaller percentageof hydrogen and helium, and ahigher percentageof “ices”, such aswater, ammoniaand methane. For thisreason someastronomerssuggested that they belong in their own category, “Uranian planets” or “icegiants”. • All four of gasgiantsexhibit orbital debrisrings, although only thering system of Saturn iseasily observablefrom Earth. Theterm outer planet should not beconfused with superiorplanet, which designatesthose planetswhich lieoutsideEarth’sorbit (thusconsisting of theouter planets plusMars.
- 22. Inferior planets: Morning and evening stars Mercury and Venusare classified as inferior planet becausetheir orbitalsarefound insidetheorbit of theearth and seem closer to the sun Manifest both progradeand retrogrademotion
- 23. Superior Planets Mars. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Exhibit their own revolution and motion from west to east (prograde motion) As they catches up by the Earth , they move in opposite direction which is from east to west (retrograde
- 24. Retrogradeand Prograde Retrogradeorbit: thesatellite(red) orbitsin the direction opposite to therotation of itsprimary (blue/black)
- 25. Aristotleand theEarth-Centered Universe Aristotle - one of thefamous Greek philosophers known for his ideathat the earth isthe center of the solar system.
- 26. Renaissanceand theHeliocentric Solar System • TheEarth revolves around thesun as proposed by Arstarchus of Samos •Copernican Revolution: Nicolaus Copernican proposed themathematical model of theheliocentric system which was supported by Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei
- 27. Motionsof theEarth and theMoon o cause theday and night o reason for seasons
- 28. SeasonsSeasons
- 29. • The Moon moves around the Earth in an approximately circular orbit, going once around us in approximately 27.3 days, or one sidereal period of revolution. • Each night, it moves about 13 degrees, or about 26 diameters, to the east.
- 30. Phasesof theMoon
- 31. Let us just enjoy the magic of the night sky…Let us just enjoy the magic of the night sky…View More
The Solar System
The Solar System is composed of the Sun and the celestial objects which are
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KIMBERLY JANE BAROY BSPSYCHOLOGY 1 A peculiarity of the site is that the planets and moons are dropped in at random locations when the simulation starts, so it is not representative of any actual point in time. Where that becomes most significant is in the comparative positions of the moons of the outer planets. Many of the moons of the outer planets have orbital resonances -- for instance, Io orbits Jupiter four times for every two times that Europa goes around and for every single Ganymede orbit. For another instance, several of Saturn's moons have co-orbitals, smaller moons in 1:1 orbital resonances that should be located exactly 60 degrees ahead and behind the moon. The relative orbital speeds are correct for all these moons, but the relative orbital positions don't work out correctly because of the initial randomized location. The same goes for the positions of Pluto and Neptune -- the two are in a 3:2 orbital resonance and never get anywhere near each other (which is what makes Pluto's orbit a stable one), but depending on where the randomizer places them at the start, they sometimes approach uncomfortably close. Still, peculiarities aside, it is a really neat simulation, extremely easy to use, with few controls, and I think would be a great aid for teaching about the orbital motions of bodies in the solar system.
Mary Joy Parea
Pareña, Mary Joy G. BSPSY-I What comes up in your mind when you heard the "Solar System"? Ofcourse it is about the planets, galaxies, stars, comets and other things that we can find in other space. It also include natural satellites of the planets such as moon. Our solar system is located in an outward spiral of the Milky Way galaxy. It is fun to study because of its wonderful colors that even a child will attract. There are actually five dwarf planets in our solar system; one of them is the recently reclassified Pluto. The other four are Ceres, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake.If asked what the hottest planet is, most people would point to Mercury. While this is not true, it is a completely sensible conclusion since Mercury is, after all, the closest planet to the sun. But it turns out that Venus is actually a hotter planet than Mercury, even though it is further away. The reason for this is that Mercury—due, in fact, to its proximity to the sun—doesn’t even have an atmosphere, which means that there is nothing to hold the heat in. Venus, on the other hand, has a notoriously thick atmosphere that traps the heat created by the sun. Interestingly, Venus is also quite the black sheep of the planet world, and spins in the opposite direction.
Julius Juego BSPSY-I Our solar system consists of a star of average size and luminosity we call the Sun, the planets (in order of their distance from the Sun) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper Belt objects (e.g., dwarf planets like Pluto), the satellites or moons of the planets, numerous comets, asteroids, meteoroids and the interplanetary medium. The planets, most of the satellites of the planets and the asteroids revolve around the Sun in the same direction (counterclockwise), in nearly circular orbits (ellipses, but close to circles). When looking down from above the Sun's north pole, the planets orbit in a counter-clockwise direction. A new class of dwarf planets was added in 2006, these objects are found mostly in the Asteroid Belt and the Kuiper Belt. The planets orbit the Sun in or near the same plane, called the ecliptic. Pluto is a special dwarf planet in that its orbit is the most highly inclined (18 degrees) and the most highly elliptical of all the planets. The Sun contains 99.85% of all the matter in the Solar System. The planets, which condensed out of the same disk of material that formed the Sun, contain only 0.135% of the mass of the solar system. Jupiter contains more than twice the matter of all the other planets combined.
Geromae Anne P. Tuzon BSPSY1 Our solar neighborhood is an exciting place. The Solar System is full of planets, moons, asteroids, comets, minor planets, and many other exciting objects. Learn about Io, the explosive moon that orbits the planet Jupiter, or explore the gigantic canyons and deserts on Mars.Everything in the Solar System orbits or revolves around the Sun. The Sun contains around 98% of all the material in the Solar System. The larger an object is, the more gravity it has. Because the Sun is so large, its powerful gravity attracts all the other objects in the Solar System towards it. At the same time, these objects, which are moving very rapidly, try to fly away from the Sun, outward into the emptiness of outer space. The result of the planets trying to fly away, at the same time that the Sun is trying to pull them inward is that they become trapped half-way in between. Balanced between flying towards the Sun, and escaping into space, they spend eternity orbiting around their parent star.Solar system is very important to us.If there is no solar system how could we get sunlight and life on this earth.It is important because it contains our planet Earth, the sun in which our ecosystem harvests energy and other planets to help the Earth to maintain a steady orbit around the sun, just at the right distance so we don't fry or freeze.
A peculiarity of the site is that the planets and moons are dropped in at random locations when the simulation starts, so it is not representative of any actual point in time. Where that becomes most significant is in the comparative positions of the moons of the outer planets. Many of the moons of the outer planets have orbital resonances -- for instance, Io orbits Jupiter four times for every two times that Europa goes around and for every single Ganymede orbit. For another instance, several of Saturn's moons have co-orbitals, smaller moons in 1:1 orbital resonances that should be located exactly 60 degrees ahead and behind the moon. The relative orbital speeds are correct for all these moons, but the relative orbital positions don't work out correctly because of the initial randomized location. The same goes for the positions of Pluto and Neptune -- the two are in a 3:2 orbital resonance and never get anywhere near each other (which is what makes Pluto's orbit a stable one), but depending on where the randomizer places them at the start, they sometimes approach uncomfortably close. Still, peculiarities aside, it is a really neat simulation, extremely easy to use, with few controls, and I think would be a great aid for teaching about the orbital motions of bodies in the solar system. Some fun things to watch for: zoom in to where you can see Mars and Earth, and see how often the two line up on the same side of the Sun. Keep track of where it happened last time, and where it happens the next time. Now do you understand why Mars launch opportunities happen 26 months apart? Zoom out to where you can see the outer solar system, and muse on how rare it is for the outer planets to line up with Jupiter a little behind Saturn, Saturn a little behind Uranus, and Uranus a little behind Neptune, to permit such a thing as a Voyager 2 grand tour. Look at how bodies at the same distance from the Sun in the asteroid belt can be going at very different speeds, depending on how elliptical their orbits are and whether they're near aphelion or perihelion or in between. See if you can notice how Mars' relatively elliptical orbit makes it go much faster at one part of its year than at another part.
Aia Karrel Punzalan
AIA KARREL PUNZALAN BSPSY I For many years, people believed that the Earth was the unmoving center of the universe and that the planets,Sun,moon, and the stars moved on spheres around the Earth. Astronomers such as Copernicus and Galileo suggested that a Sun centered solar system offered a better way to understand the motions of these objects in the sky. But people weren't ready to accept that the Earth wasn't the center of the universe. There are now officially only eight planets in our solar system The Solar System consists of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: eight planets, their 165 known moons, three dwarf planets and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies
JOHN LAWRENCE P. DELOS SANTOS-The inner planets (in order of distance from the sun, closest to furthest) are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. After an asteroid belt comes the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. It's probably easiest to understand the moon cycle in this order: new moon and full moon, first quarter and third quarter, and the phases in between. As shown in the above diagram, the new moon occurs when the moon is positioned between the earth and sun. The three objects are in approximate alignment (why "approximate" is explained below). The entire illuminated portion of the moon is on the back side of the moon, the half that we cannot see. At a full moon, the earth, moon, and sun are in approximate alignment, just as the new moon, but the moon is on the opposite side of the earth, so the entire sunlit part of the moon is facing us. The shadowed portion is entirely hidden from view. The first quarter and third quarter moons (both often called a "half moon"), happen when the moon is at a 90 degree angle with respect to the earth and sun. So we are seeing exactly half of the moon illuminated and half in shadow. Once you understand those four key moon phases, the phases between should be fairly easy to visualize, as the illuminated portion gradually transitions between them. An easy way to remember and understand those "between" lunar phase names is by breaking out and defining 4 words: crescent, gibbous, waxing, and waning. The word crescent refers to the phases where the moon is less than half illuminated. The word gibbous refers to phases where the moon is more than half illuminated. Waxing essentially means "growing" or expanding in illumination, and waning means "shrinking" or decreasing in illumination.
April Cayetano BSPSY-1 we could be into it and explore its magnificence through scientific researches, studies and discoveries of known philosophers, astronomers, physicists and even by creative writers in different types of media. Astronomy is known as the science of the entire universe beyond the Earth. It includes the Earth’s gross physical properties: its mass and rotation, as they interact with other bodies of the solar system. It was until the 18th century, astronomers became interested with the Sun, Moon, planets and comets. However, during the last two centuries, the study of stars, galaxies, nebula, and the interstellar medium has become increasingly important and interesting to astronomers.
Sharmane Del Rosario
Sharmane D. Del Rosario BS Psy-I The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci. A line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. The square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. The usual motion of planets as they "wandered" on the celestial sphere was eastward against the background stars. This is called "Direct" Motion". However, it was observed that at times the planets moved westward for some period on the celestial sphere; this was termed "Retrograde Motion". The episodes of retrograde motion were difficult to explain. Kepler’s laws define the motion of the planets, Newton’s laws define motion. Thinking on Kepler’s laws, Newton realized that all motion, whether it was the orbit of the Moon around the Earth or an apple falling from a tree, followed the same basic principles. “To the same natural effects,” he wrote, “we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes.” Previous Aristotelian thinking, physicist Stephen Hawking has written, assigned different causes to different types of motion.