pump-net positive head 2
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- pump-net positive head 2.
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- 1. Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) NPSH Available is a function of the systetm in which the pump operates. It is the excess pressure of the liquid in feet absolute over its vapor pressure as it arrives at the pump suction. Fig. 4 shows four typical suction systems with the NPSH Available formulas applicable to each. It is important to correct for the specific gravity of the liquid and to convert all terms to units of "feet absolute" in using the formulas. PB = Barometric pressure in feet absolute. VP = Vapor pressure of the liquid at maximum pumping temperature, in feet absolute. P = Pressure on surface of liquid in closed suction tank, in feet absolute. Ls = Maximum static suction lift in feet. LH = Minimum static suction head in feet. hf = Friction loss in feet in suction pipe at required capacity Fig. 4 Calculation of system Net Positive Suction Head Available for typical suction conditions. In an existing system, the NPSH Available can be determined by a gauge on the pump suction. The following formula applies: Where Gr = Gauge reading at the pump suction expressed in feet (plus if above atmospheric, minus if below atmospheric) corrected to the pump centerline. hv = Velocity head in the suction pipe at the gauge connection, expressed in feet. Cavitation is a term used to describe the phenomenon, which occurs in a pump when there is insufficient NPSH Available. When the pressure of the liquid is reduced to a value equal to or below its vapor pressure the liquid begins to boil and small vapor bubbles or pockets begin to form. As these vapor bubbles move along the impeller vanes to a higher pressure area above the vapor pressure, they rapidly collapse. The collapse, or "implosion" is so rapid that it may be heard as a rumbling noise, as if you were pumping gravel. In high suction energy pumps, the collapses are generally high enough to cause
- 2. minute pockets of fatigue failure on the impeller vane surfaces. This action may be progressive, and under severe (very high suction energy) conditions can cause serious pitting damage to the impeller. The accompanying noise is the easiest way to recognize cavitation. Besides possible impeller damage, excessive cavitation results in reduced capacity due to the vapor present in the pump. Also, the head may be reduced and/or be unstable and the power consumption may be erratic. Vibration and mechanical damage such as bearing failure can also occur as a result of operating in excessive cavitation, with high and very high suction energy pumps. The way to prevent the undesirable effects of cavitation in standard low suction energy pumps is to insure that the NPSH Available in the system is greater than the NPSH Required by the pump. High suction energy pumps require an additional NPSH margin, above the NPSH Required. Hydraulic Institute Standard (ANSI/HI 9.6.1) suggests NPSH margin ratios of from 1.2 to 2.5 times the NPSH Required, for high and very high suction energy pumps, when operating in the allowable operating range.View More