 # K to 12 - Grade 8 Math Learner Module

K to 12 - Grade 8 Math Learner Module

1. K to 12 - Grade 8 Math Learner Module
K to 12 - Grade 8 Math Learner Module
Transcript Body:
• 1. I. INTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTIONS SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORS Have you at a certain time asked yourself how a basketball court was painted using the least number of paint? Or how the architect was able to maximize the space of a building and was able to place all amenities the owners want? Or how a carpenter was able to create a utility box using minimal materials? Or how some students were able to multiply polynomial expressions in a least number of time? This module will help you recognize patterns and techniques in finding products, and factors, and mathematical as well as real-life problems. After finishing the module, you should be able to answer the following questions: a. How can polynomials be used to solve geometric problems? b. How are products obtained through patterns? c. How are factors related to products? II. LESSONS AND COVERAGE In this module, you will examine the aforementioned questions when you study the following lessons: Lesson 1 – Special Products Lesson 2 – Factoring http://dmciresidences.com/home/2011/01/ cedar-crest-condominiums/ http://frontiernerds.com/metal-box http://mazharalticonstruction.blogspot. com/2010/04/architectural-drawing.html 1
• 2. 2 In these lessons, you will learn to: Lesson 1 Special Products • identify polynomials which are special products through pattern recognition • find special products of certain polynomials • apply special products in solving geometric problems • solve problems involving polynomials and their products Lesson 2 Factoring • factor completely different types of polynomials • find factors of products of polynomials • solve problems involving polynomials and their factors. Module MapModule Map Here is a simple map of the lessons that will be covered in this module: Special Products Applications Factoring Square of a Binomial Sum and Difference of Two Terms Cube of a Binomial Common Monomial Factor Difference of Two Squares Perfect Square Trinomial General Trinomial Sum and Difference of Two Cubes Grouping Square of a Trinomial Find out how much you already know about this module. Write the letter that corresponds to the best answer on your answer sheet.
• 3. 3 III. PRE-ASSESSMENT 1. Which mathematical statement is correct? a. 6x2 – 5xy + y2 b. 16x2 –40x + 25 c. 6x2 +13x – 28 d. 4x2 + 20x + 25 2. Which of the following DOES NOT belong to the group? a. 1 4 x4 – 1 b. x2 – 0.0001y4 c. 8(x – 1)3 – 27 d. (x + 1)4 – 4x6 3. Which of the following gives a product of x2 + 5x + 4? a. (x + 1)(x + 4) b. (x + 2)(x + 2) c. (x + 5)(x – 1) d. (x + 2)2 4. A polynomial expression is evaluated for the x- and y-values shown in the table below. Which expression gives the values shown in the third column? X Y Value of the Expression 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 1 1 0 1 -1 4 a. x2 – y2 b. x2 + 2xy + y2 c. x2 – 2xy + y2 d. x3 – y3 5. Find the missing terms: (x + ___)(3x + ___) = 3x2 + 27x + 24 a. 6, 4 b. 4, 6 c. 8, 3 d. 12, 2
• 4. 4 6. The length of a box is five meters less than twice the width. The height is 4 meters more than three times the width. The box has a volume of 520 cubic meters. Which of the following equations can be used to find the height of the box? a. W(2L – 5) (3H + 4) = 520 b. W(2W + 5) (3W – 4) = 520 c. W(2W – 5) (3W – 4) = 520 d. W(2W – 5) (3W + 4) = 520 7. One of the factors of 2a2 + 5a – 12 is a + 4. What is the other factor? a. 2a – 3 c. 2a – 8 b. 2a + 3 d. 2a + 8 8. The area of a square is 4x2 +12x + 9 square units. Which expression represents the length of the side? a. (3x + 2) units c. (4x + 9) units b. (2x + 3) units d. (4x + 3) units 9. The side of a square is x cm long. The length of a rectangle is 5 cm longer than the side of the square and the width is 5 cm shorter. Which statement is true? a. The area of the square is greater than the area of the rectangle. b. The area of the square is less than the area of the rectangle. c. The area of the square is equal to the area of the rectangle. d. The relationship cannot be determined from the given information. 10. A square piece of land was rewarded by a landlord to his tenant. They agreed that a portion of it represented by the rectangle inside should be used to construct a grotto. How large is the area of the land that is available for the other purposes? a. 4x2 – 9 b. 4x2 + x + 9 c. 4x2 – 8x – 9 d. 4x2 + 9 11. Which value for x will make the largest area of the square with a side of 3x + 2? a. 3 4 c. 1 3 b. 0.4 d. 0.15 2 5 – 2x 2x – 1 2x – 1
• 5. 5 12. Which procedure could not be used to solve for the area of the figure below? a. A = 2x (2x + 6) + 1 2 (2x)(x + 8) A = 4x2 + 12x + x2 + 8x A = 5x2 + 20x b. A = 2x(3x + 14) – 2( 1 2 )(x)(x + 8) A = 6x2 + 28x – x2 – 8x A = 5x2 + 20x c. A = [2x(2x + 6) + (x + 8)(2x)] – 2( 1 2 )(x)(x + 8) A = [4x2 + 12x) + (2x2 + 16x) – (x2 + 8x) A = 6x2 + 28x – x2 – 8x A = 5x2 + 20x d. A = 2x(2x + 6) + ( 1 2 )(2 + x)(x + 8) A = 4x2 + 12x + x2 + 8x A = 5x2 + 20x 13. Your classmate was asked to square (2x – 3), he answered 4x2 – 9. Is his answer correct? a. Yes, because squaring a binomial always produces a binomial product. b. Yes, because the product rule is correctly applied. c. No, because squaring a binomial always produces a trinomial product. d. No, because the answer must be 4x2 + 9 . 14. Let A: 4x2 – 81, and let B: (2x – 9)(2x + 9). If x = 2, which statement is true about A and B? a. A > B b. A < B c. A = B d. A ≠ B 2x + 6 x + 8 2x
• 7. 7 20. As head of the marketing department of a certain construction firm, you are tasked to create a new packaging box for the soap products. What criteria will you consider in creating the box? a. Appropriateness and the resources used b. Resources used and uniqueness c. Appropriateness and uniqueness d. Appropriateness and capacity How was your performance in the pre–test? Were you able to answer all the problems? Did you find difficulties in answering them? Are there questions familiar to you? IV. LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS In this module, you will have the following targets: • Demonstrate understanding of the key concepts of special products and factors of polynomials. • Formulate real-life problems involving special products and factors and solve these with utmost accuracy using a variety of strategies.
• 8. 8 11 Special Products What to KnowWhat to Know Let us start our study of this module by reviewing first the concepts on multiplying polynomials, which is one of the skills needed in the study of this module. Discuss the questions below with a partner. PATTERNS WHERE ARE YOU? Have you ever looked around and recognized different patterns? Have you asked yourself what the world’s environment would look like if there were no patterns? Why do you think there are patterns around us? Identify the different patterns in each picture. Discuss your observations with a partner. Have you ever used patterns in simplifying mathematical expressions? What advantages have you gained in doing such? Let us see how patterns are used to simplify mathematical expressions by doing the activity below. Try to multiply the following numerical expressions. Can you solve the following numerical expressions mentally? Now, answer the following questions: 1. What do you notice about the given expressions? 2. Did you solve them easily? Did you notice some patterns in finding their answers? 3. What technique/s did you use? What difficulties did you encounter? The indicated products can be solved easily using different patterns. Lesson 97 × 103 = 25 × 25 = 99 × 99 × 99 = http://gointothestory.blcklst.com/2012/02/ doodling-in-math-spirals-fibonacci-and-being-a- plant-1-of-3.html h t t p : / / m e g a n v a n d e r p o e l . b l o g s p o t . com/2012/09/pattern-precedents.html
• 10. 10 QU ESTIO NS? 1. How did you find each indicated product? 2. Did you encounter any difficulty in finding the products? Why? 3. What concept did you apply in finding the product? GALLERY WALK Activity 3 Description: This activity will enable you to review multiplication of polynomials. Direction: Find the indicated product of the expressions that will be handed to your group. Post your answers on your group station. Your teacher will give you time to walk around the classroom and observe the answers of the other groups. Answer the questions that follow. CASE 1: (x + 5)(x – 5) = (a – b)(a + b) = (x + y)(x – y) = (x – 8)(x + 8) = (2x + 5)(2x – 5) = CASE 3: (x + 5)3 = (a – b)(a – b)(a – b) = (x + y)3 = (x + 4)(x + 4)(x + 4) = (x + 2y)3 = CASE 2: (x + 5)(x + 5) = (a – b)2 = (x + y)(x + y) = (x – 8)2 = (2x + 5)(2x + 5) = CASE 4: (a + b + c)(a + b + c) = (x + y + z)(x + y + z) = (m + 2n – 3f)2 = QU ESTIO NS ? 1. How many terms do the products contain? 2. Compare the product with its factors. What is the relationship between the factors and the terms of their product? 3. Do you see any pattern in the product? 4. How did this pattern help you in finding the product? Remember: To multiply polynomials: • a(b + c) = ab + ac • (a + b)(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd
• 11. 11 You just tried finding the indicated products through the use of patterns. Are the techniques applicable to all multiplication problems? When is it applicable and when is it not? Let us now find the answers by going over the following section. What you will learn in the next sections will enable you to do the final project. This involves making a packaging box using the concepts of special products and factoring. Let us start by doing the next activity. What to ProcessWhat to Process Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key concepts related to finding special products. There are special forms of algebraic expressions whose products are readily seen. These are called special products. There are certain conditions which would make a polynomial special. Discovering these conditions will help you find the product of algebraic expressions easily. Let us start in squaring a binomial The square of a binomial is expressed as (x + y)2 or (x + y)(x + y) and (x – y)2 or (x – y)(x – y). In your previous grade, you did this by applying the FOIL method, which is sometimes tedious to do. There is an easier way in finding the desired product and that is what we will consider here. FOLD TO SQUARE Activity 4 Description: In this activity, you will model the square of a binomial through paper folding. Investigate the pattern that can be produced in this activity. This pattern will help you find the square of a binomial easily. You can do this individually or with a partner. Directions: Get a square paper measuring 8” × 8”. 1. Fold the square paper 1” with from an edge and make a crease. 2. Fold the upper right corner by 1” and make a crease. 3. Unfold the paper. 4. Continue the activity by creating another model for squaring a binomial by changing the measures of the folds to 2 in. and 3 in. Then answer the questions below. x x y y 7 7 1 1 Remember: • Area of square = s2 • Area of rectangle = lw
• 12. 12 1. How many different regions are formed? What geometric figures are formed? Give the dimensions of each region? 2. What is the area of each region? 3. What will be the area if the longer part is replaced by x? by x and 1? 4. What is the sum of the areas? Write the sum of areas in the box below. 5. If 1 is replaced by y, what will be the area? QU ESTIO NS? FIRST TERM SECOND TERM LAST TERM (x + 1)2 (x + 2)2 (x + 3)2 (x + y)2 Did you find any pattern? What pattern is it? 1. How is the first term of the product related to the first term of the given binomial? 2. How is the last term of the product related to the last term of the given binomial? 3. What observation do you have about the middle term of the product and the product of the first and last terms of the binomial? Observe the following examples: a. (x – 3)2 = (x)2 – 3x – 3x + (3)2 c. (3x + 4y)2 = (3x)2 + 12xy + 12xy + (4y)2 = x2 – 2(3x) + 9 = 9x2 + 2(12xy) + 16y2 = x2 – 6x + 9 = 9x2 + 24xy + 16y2 b. (x + 5)2 = (x)2 + 5x + 5x + (5)2 = x2 + 2(5x) + 25 = x2 + 10x + 25 Remember: • Product rule • Raising a power to a power (am )(an ) = am+n (am )n = amn
• 13. 13 The square of a binomial consists of: a. the square of the first term; b. twice the product of the first and last terms; and c. the square of the last term. Remember that the square of a binomial is called a perfect square trinomial. LET’S PRACTICE! Square the following binomials using the pattern you have just learned. 1. (s + 4)2 5. (3z + 2k)2 9. ( 4 5 kj – 6)2 2. (w – 5)2 6. (5d – 7d2 t)2 10. [(x + 3) – 5]2 3. (e – 7)2 7. (7q2 w2 – 4w2 )2 4. (2q – 4)2 8. ( 2 2 e – 6)2 The square of a binomial is just one example of special products. Do the next activity to discover another type of special product, that is squaring a trinomial. DISCOVER ME AFTER! (PAPER FOLDING AND CUTTING) Activity 5 Description: In this activity you will model and discover the pattern on how a trinomial is squared, that is (a + b + c)2 . Investigate and observe the figure that will be formed. Directions: Get a 10” × 10” square paper. Fold the sides 7”, 3” and 1” vertically and make creases. Using the same measures, fold horizontally and make creases. The resulting figure should be the same as the figure below. 7 3 1 a b c
• 14. 14 1. How many regions are formed? What are the dimensions of each region in the figure? 2. What are the areas of each region? 3. If the side of the biggest square is replaced by a, how will you represent its area? 4. If one of the dimensions of the biggest rectangle is replaced by b, how will you represent its area? 5. If the side of the smaller square is replaced by c, how will you represent its area? 6. What is the sum of the areas of all regions? Do you observe any pattern in the sum of their areas? QU ESTIO NS? Observe the following examples and take note of your observation. a. (x + y + z)2 = x2 + y2 + z2 + 2xy + 2yz + 2xz b. (m + n – d)2 = m2 + n2 + d2 + 2mn – 2md – 2nd c. (3d + 2e + f)2 = 9d2 + 4e2 + f2 + 12de + 6df + 4ef The square of a trinomial consists of: a. the sum of the squares of the first, second and last terms; b. twice the product of the first and the second terms; c. twice the product of the first and the last terms; and d. twice the product of the second and the last terms. LET’S PRACTICE! Square the following trinomials using the pattern you have learned. 1. (r – t + n)2 6. (15a – 4n – 6)2 2. (e + 2a + q)2 7. (4a + 4b + 4c)2 3. (m + a – y) (m + a – y) 8. (9a2 + 4b2 – 3c2 )2 4. (2s + o – 4n)2 9. (1.5a2 – 2.3b + 1)2 5. (2i2 + 3a – 5n)2 10. ( 3x 4 + 4y 3 - 6)2
• 15. 15 TRANSFORMERS Activity 6 Description: This activity will help us model the product of the sum and difference of two terms (x – y) (x + y) and observe patterns to solve it easily. Directions: Prepare a square of any measure; label its side as x. Cut a small square of side y from any of its corner (as shown below). Answer the questions that follow. x A D G E y C F B In terms of x and y, answer the following: 1. What is the area of the original big square (ABCD)? 2. What is the area of the small square (GFCE)? 3. How are you going to represent the area of the new figure? Cut along the broken line as shown and rearrange the pieces to form a rectangle. 1. What are the dimensions of the rectangle formed? 2. How will you get the area of the rectangle? 3. Represent the area of the rectangle that was formed. Do you see any pattern in the product of the sum and difference of two terms? Study the relationship that exists between the product of the sum and difference of two terms and the factors. Take note of the pattern formed. a. (x + y)(x – y) = x2 – y2 d. (w – 5)(w + 5) = w2 – 25 b. (a – b)(a + b) = a2 – b2 e. (2x – 5)(2x +5) = 4x2 – 25 c. (m + 3)(m – 3) = m2 – 9 The product of the sum and difference of two terms is the difference of the squares of the terms. In symbols, (x + y)(x – y) = x2 – y2 . Notice that the product is always a binomial. LET’S PRACTICE! Multiply the following binomials using the patterns you have learned. 1. (w – 6)(w + 6) 3. (4y – 5d)(4y + 5d) 2. (a + 4c)(a – 4c) 4. (3sd + 4f)(4f – 3sd)
• 16. 16 CUBRA CUBE Activity 7 Description: A cubra cube is a set of cubes and prisms connected by nylon. The task is to form a bigger cube using all the figures provided. Your teacher will help you how to form a cubra cube. After performing the activity, answer the questions that follow. a b a a b b a b 1. How many big cubes did you use? Small cubes? 2. How many different prisms do you have? 3. How many prisms are contained in the new cube? 4. What is the total volume of the new cube formed? 5. If the side of the big cube is marked as a and the smaller cube is marked as b, what is the volume of each figure? 6. What will be the total volume of the new cube? 7. What are the dimensions of the new cube? QU ESTIO NS ? Remember: • Volume of a cube = s3 • Volume of a rectangular prism = lwh 5. (12x – 3)(12x + 3) 8. ( 5 6 g2 a2 – 2 3 d2 )( 5 6 g2 a2 + 2 3 d2 ) 6. (3s2 r2 + 7q)(3s2 r2 – 7q) 9. (2sn qm + 3d3k ) (2sn qm – 3d3k ) 7. (l3 o4 v5 – 6e3 )(l3 o4 v5 + 6e3 ) 10. [(s + 2)– 4][(s + 2) + 4] The previous activity taught you how to find the product of the sum and difference of two terms using patterns. Perform the next activity to discover another pattern in simplifying expressions of polynomials.
• 17. 17 To find the cube of a binomial of the form (x + y)3 : a. Find the cube of each term to get the first and the last terms. (x)3 , (y)3 b. The second term is three times the product of the square of the first term and the second term. 3(x)2 (y) c. The third term is three times the product of the first term and the square of the second term. 3(x)(y)2 Hence, (x + y)3 = x3 + 3x2 y + 3xy2 + y3 To find the cube of a binomial of the form (x – y)3 : a. Find the cube of each term to get the first and the last terms. (x)3 , (-y)3 b. The second term is three times the product of the square of the first term and the second term. 3(x)2 (-y) c. The third term is three times the product of the first term and the square of the second term. 3(x)(-y)2 Hence, (x – y)3 = x3 – 3x2 y + 3xy2 – y3 IRF WORKSHEET Activity 8 Description: Using the “R” portion of the IRF Worksheet, answer the following topical focus questions: What makes a product special? What patterns are involved in multiplying algebraic expression? IRF Worksheet Initial Answer Revised Answer Final Answer This time let us go back to the Gallery Walk activity and focus on case 3, which is an example of a cube of binomial (x + y)3 or (x + y)(x + y)(x + y) and (x – y)3 or (x – y)(x – y) (x – y).
• 18. 18 WEB – BASED ACTIVITY: DRAG AND DROP Description: Now that you have learned the various special products, you will now do an interactive activity which will allow you to drag sets of factors and drop them beside special products. The activity is available in this website: http://www.media.pearson.com.au/schools/cw/ au_sch_bull_gm12_1/dnd/2_spec.html. QUESTIONS: 1. What special products did you use in the activity? 2. Name some techniques which you used to make the work easier. 3. What generalizations can you draw from the examples shown? 4. Given the time constraint, how could you do the task quickly and accurately? 3-2-1 CHART Activity 9 Description: In this activity, you will be asked to complete the 3-2-1 Chart regarding the special products that you have discovered. 3-2-1 Chart Three things I found out: 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________ Two interesting things: 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ One question I still have: 1. ________________________________________________________ You can visit these websites for more games. http://math123xyz.com/ Nav/Algebra/Polynomials_ Products_Practice.php http://worksheets.tutorvista. com/special-products-of- polynomials-worksheet.html#
• 19. 19 WHAT’S THE WAY? THAT’S THE WAY! Activity 10 Description: This activity will test if you have understood the lesson by giving the steps in simplifying expressions containing special products in your own words. Directions: Give the different types of special products and write the steps/process of simplifying them. You may add boxes if necessary. SPECIAL PRODUCTS SPECIAL PRODUCTS ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Video Watching: You can visit the following websites to watch different discussions and activities on special products. 1. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=bFtjG45-Udk (Square of binomial) 2. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v= OWu0tH5RC2M (Sum and difference of binomials) 3. http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=PcwXR HHnV8Y (Cube of a binomial) Now that you know the important ideas about how patterns on special products were used to find the product of a algebraic expressions, let’s go deeper by moving on to the next section.
• 20. 20 What I have learned so far...________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________. REFLECTIONREFLECTION
• 21. 21 2. Emmanuel wants to tile his rectangular floor. He has two kinds of tiles to choose from, one of which is larger than the other. Emmanuel hired your services to help him decide which tile to use. a. What area will be covered by the 8” x 8” tile? 16” x 16” tile? b. If the rectangular floor has dimensions of 74” x 128”, how many small square tiles are needed to cover it? c. How many big square tiles are needed to cover the rectangular floor? d. If each small tile costs Php 15.00 and each big tile costs Php 60.00, which tile should Emmanuel use to economize in tiling his floor? Explain why. What to UnderstandWhat to Understand You have already learned and identified the different polynomials and their spe- cial products. You will now take a closer look at some aspects of the topic and check if you still have misconceptions about special products. DECISION, DECISION, DECISION! Activity 11 Directions: Help each person decide what to do by applying your knowledge on special products on each situation. 1. Jem Boy wants to make his 8-meter square pool into a rectangular one by increasing its length by 2 m and decreasing its width by 2 m. Jem Boy asked your expertise to help him decide on certain matters. a. What will be the new dimensions of Jem Boy’s pool? b. What will be the new area of Jem Boy’s pool? What special product will be used? c. If the sides of the square pool is unknown, how will you represent its area? d. If Jem Boy does not want the area of his pool to decrease, will he pursue his plan? Explain your answer.
• 22. 22 BEAUTY IN MY TILE! Activity 13 Description: See different tile patterns on the flooring of a building and calculate the area of the region bounded by the broken lines, then answer the questions below. 1. http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/tile-vault-midcentury-rec- room-39808 a. What is the area represented by the big square? small square? rectangles? b. What is the total area bounded by the region? c. What special product is present in this tile design? d. Why do you think the designer of this room designed it as such? AM I STILL IN DISTRESS? Activity 12 Description: This activity will help you reflect about things that may still confuse you in this lesson. Directions: Complete the phrase below and write it on your journal. The part of the lesson that I still find confusing is __________________ because _________________________________________________. Let us see if your problem will be solved doing the next activity.
• 23. 23 1. What difficulties did you experience in doing the activity? 2. How did you use special products in this activity? 3. What new insights did you gain? 4. How can unknown quantities in geometric problems be solved? QU ESTIO NS ? 1. Did you find difficulty in looking for patterns where the concept of special products was applied? 2. What special products were applied in your illustration? 3. What realization do you have in this activity? QU ESTIO NS ? WHERE IS THE PATTERN? Activity 14 Descriptions: Take a picture/sketch of a figure that makes use of special products. Paste it on a piece of paper. a. What is the area represented by the big square? Small square? b. What is the sum of all areas of small squares? c. If the small squares were to be removed, how are you going to represent the area that will be left? 2.
• 24. 24 LET’S DEBATE! Activity 15 Description: Form a team of four members and debate on the two questions below. The team that can convince the other teams wins the game. • “Which is better to use in finding products, patterns or long multiplication?” • “Which will give us more benefit in life, taking the shortcuts or going the long way? IRF WORKSHEET Activity 16 Description: Now that you have learned the different special products, using the “F” portion of the IRF Worksheet, answer the topical focus question: What makes a product special? What patterns are involved in multiplying algebraic expressions? Initial Answer Revised Answer Final Answer Now that you have a deeper understanding of the topic, you are ready to do the tasks in the next section. What to TransferWhat to Transfer Let us now apply your learning to real–life situations. You will be given a practical task which will demonstrate your understanding.
• 25. 25 MAKE A WISH Activity 17 Description: The concept of squaring binomials is used in the field of Genetics through PUNNETT squares. PUNNETT SQUARES are used in genetics to model the possible combinations of parents’ genes in offspring. In this activity you will discover how it will be used. Direction: Investigate how squaring trinomials are applied in PUNNETT squares and answer the following questions. One cat carries heterozygous, long-haired traits (Ss), and its mate carries heterozygous, long-haired traits (Ss). To determine the chances of one of their offsprings having short hair, we can use PUNNETT squares. SS Ss Ss ss S S s s 1. What are the chances that the offspring is a long–haired cat? A short–haired cat? 2. What are the different possible offsprings of the mates? 3. How many homozygous offsprings will they have? Heterozygous? 4. How is the concept of squaring binomials used in this process? 5. Do you think it is possible to use the process of squaring trinomials in the field of genetics? 6. Create another model of PUNNET square using a human genetic component. Explain the possible distribution of offsprings and how squaring trinomials help you in looking for its solution. 7. Create your own PUNNET square using the concept of squaring trinomials, using your dream genes. QU ESTIO NS ? Punnett square is named after Reginald C. Punnett, who devised the approach. It is used by biologists to determine the chances of an offspring having a particular genotype. The Punnett square is a tabular summary of every possible combination of one maternal allele with one paternal allele for each gene being studied in the cross. Now that you have seen the different patterns that can be used in simplifying polynomial expressions, you are now ready to move to the next lesson which is factoring. Observe the different patterns in factoring that are related to special products so that you can do your final project, the making of a packaging box.
• 26. 26 In this lesson, I have understood that ______________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ___________. REFLECTIONREFLECTION
• 28. 28 SKILLS ACQUIRED RESPONSES 1. Can factor numerical expressions easily 2. Can divide polynomials 3. Can apply the quotient rule of exponents 4. Can add and subtract polynomials 5. Can work with special products 6. Can multiply polynomials Before you proceed to the next topic, answer first the IRF form to determine how much you know in this topic and see your progress. IRF WORKSHEETS Activity 2 Description: Complete the table by filling up first the initial column of the chart with your answer to each item. This activity will determine how much you know about this topic and your progress. Initial Revise Final Express the following as product of factors. 1. 4x2 – 12x = _________________ 2. 9m2 – 16n2 = _________________ 3. 4a2 + 12a + 9 = _________________ 4. 2x2 + 9x – 5 = _________________ 5. 27x3 – 8y3 = _________________ 6. a3 + 125b3 = _________________ 7. xm + hm – xn – hn = _________________
• 29. 29 MESSAGE FROM THE KING (Product – Factor Association) Activity 3 Description: This activity will give you an idea on how factors are associated with products. You will match the factors in column A with the products in column B to decode the secret message. COLUMN A COLUMN B 1. 4x (3x – 5) A. 6x2 y2 + 3xy3 – 3xy2 2. 3xy2 (2x + y – 1) F. x3 – 27 3. (x + y)(x – y) G. 4x2 – 9 4. (2x + 3)(2x – 3) R. 4x2 + 12x + 9 5. (x – 5y)(x + 5y) U. 12x2 – 20x 6. (x + y)2 E. 6x2 + x – 2 7. (2x + 3)2 T. ac – ad + bc – bd 8. (x – 5y)2 S. mr – nr + ms – ns 9. (x + 4)(x – 3) C. x2 – y2 10. (2x – 1)(3x +2) I. 2x2 – x – 10 11. (x + 2)(2x – 5) O. x2 – 10xy + 25y2 12. (x – 3)(x2 + 3x + 9) N. x2 + x – 12 13. (x + 3)(x2 – 3x + 9) H. x3 – 27 14. (a + b)(c – d) M. x2 + 2xy + y2 15. (m – n)(r + s) L. x2 – 25y2 16. (3x + 4)(3x – 4) P. 9x2 – 16 17. (3x – 4)2 V. 9x2 – 24x + 16 12 2 3 14 8 7 11 9 4 11 15 14 13 10 7 10 17 10 7 15 10 8 12 6 1 5 14 11 16 5 11 3 2 14 11 8 9 1. What are your observations on the expressions in column A? Compare them with those in column B. 2. Do you see any pattern? 3. Are the two expressions related? 4. Why is it important to know the reverse process of multiplication? QU ESTIO NS ?
• 30. 30 1. What are the things common to these pictures? 2. Are there things that make them different? 3. Can you spot things that are found on one picture but not on the other two? 4. What are the things common to two pictures but are not found on the other? QU ESTIO NS ? What did you discover between the relationship of products and its factors? You have just tried finding out the relationship between factors and their product. You can use this idea to do the next activities. What you will learn in the next session will also enable you to do the final project which involves model and lay–out making of a packaging box. What to ProcessWhat to Process The activity that you did in the previous section will help you understand the differ- ent lessons and activities you will encounter here. The process of finding the factors of an expression is called factoring, which is the reverse process of multiplication. A prime number is a number greater than 1 which has only two positive factors: 1 and itself. Can you give examples of prime numbers? Is it possible to have a prime that is a polynomial? If so, give examples. The first type of factoring that you will encounter is Factoring the Greatest Com- mon Monomial Factor. To understand this let us do some picture analysis. FINDING COMMON Activity 4 Description: Your task in this activity is to identify common things that are present in the three pictures. http://blog.ningin.com/2011/09/04/10-idols-and-groups-pigging-out/ http://k-pop-love.tumblr.com/post/31067024715/ eating-sushi
• 31. 31 The previous activity gave us the idea about the Greatest Common Monomial Factor that appears in every term of the polynomial. Study the illustrative examples on how factoring the Greatest Common Monomial Factor is being done. Factor 12x3 y5 – 20x5 y2 z a. Find the greatest common factor of the numerical coefficients. The GCF of 12 and 20 is 4. b. Find the variable with the least exponent that appears in each term of the polynomial. x and y are both common to all terms and 3 is the smallest exponent for x and 2 is the smallest exponent of y, thus, x3 y2 is the GCF of the variables. c. The product of the greatest common factor in (a) and (b) is the GCF of the polynomial. Hence, 4x3 y2 is the GCF of 12x3 y5 – 20x5 y2 z. d. To completely factor the given polynomial, divide the polynomial by its GCF, the resulting quotient is the other factor. Thus, the factored form of 12x3 y5 – 20x5 y2 z is 4x3 y2 (3y3 – 5x2 z) Below are other examples of Factoring the Greatest Monomial Factor. a. 8x2 + 16x  8x is the greatest monomial factor. Divide the polynomial by 8x to get the other factor. 8x(x + 2) is the factored form of 8x2 + 16x. b. 12x5 y4 – 16x3 y4 + 28x6  4x3 is the greatest monomial factor. Divide the given expression by the greatest monomial factor to get the other factor. Thus, 4x3 (3x2 y4 – 4y4 + 7x3 ) is the factored form of the given expression. Complete the table to practice this type of factoring. Polynomial Greatest Common Monomial Factor (CMF) Quotient of Polynomial and CMF Factored Form 6m + 8 2 3m + 4 2 (3m + 4) 4mo2 4mo2 (3m + o) 27d4 o5 t3 a6 – 18d2 o3 t6 – 15d6 o4 9d2 o2 t3 a6 – 6t6 – 5d4 4(12) + 4(8) 4 12WI3 N5 – 16WIN + 20WINNER
• 32. 32 Now that you have learned how to factor polynomials using their greatest common factor we can move to the next type of factoring, which is the difference of two squares. Why do you think it was given such name? To model it, let’s try doing the activity that follows. INVESTIGATION IN THE CLASSROOM Activity 5 Description: This activity will help you understand the concepts of difference of two squares and how this pattern is used to solve numerical expressions. Investigate the number pattern by comparing the products, then write your generalizations afterwards. NUMBER PATTERN: a. (11)(9) = (10 + 1)(10 – 1) = 100 – 1 = b. (5)(3) = (4 + 1)(4 – 1) = 16 – 1 = c. (101)(99) = (100 + 1)(100 – 1) = 10000 – 1 = d. (95)(85) = (90 + 5)(90 – 5) = 8100 – 25 = e. (n – 5)(n + 5) = How do you think the products are obtained? What are the different techniques used to solve for the products? What is the relationship of the product to its factor? Have you seen any pattern in this activity? For you to have a clearer view of this type of factoring, let us have a paper folding activity again. INVESTIGATION IN PAPER FOLDING Activity 6 Description: This activity will help you visualize the pattern of difference of two squares. Directions: 1. Get a square paper and label the sides as a. 2. Cut – out a small square in any of its corner and label the side of the small square as b. 3. Cut the remaining figure in half. 4. Form a rectangle A C G E D F B
• 33. 33 1. What is the area of square ABDC? 2. What is the area of the cutout square GFDE? 3. What is the area of the new figure formed? 4. What is the dimension of the new figure formed? 5. What pattern can you create in the given activity? QU ESTIO NS? 1. What is the first term of each polynomial? 2. What is the last term of each polynomial? 3. What is the middle sign of the polynomial? 4. How was the polynomial factored? 5. What pattern is seen in the factors of the difference of two terms? 6. Can all expressions be factored using difference of two squares? Why or why not? 7. When can you factor expressions using difference of two squares? QU ESTIO NS ? For you to have a better understanding about this lesson, observe how the expressions below are factored. Observe how each term relates with each other. a. x2 – y2 = (x + y)(x – y) d. 16a6 – 25b2 = (4a3 – 5b)(4a3 + 5b) b. 4x2 – 36 = (2x + 6)(2x – 6) e. ( 9 16 r4 – 1 25 t2 n6 ) = ( 3 4 r2 + 1 5 tn3 )( 3 4 r2 – 1 5 tn3 ) c. a2 b4 – 81 = (ab2 – 9)(ab2 + 9) Remember the factored form of a polynomial that is a difference of two squares is the sum and difference of the square roots of the first and last terms. • 4x2 – 36y2  the square root of 4x2 is 2x and the square root of 36y2 is 6y. To write their factors, write the product of the sum and difference of the square roots of 4x2 – 36y2 , that is (2x + 6y)(2x – 6y).
• 34. 34 PAIR MO KO NYAN! Activity 7 Description: This game will help you develop your factoring skills by formulating your problem based on the given expressions. You can integrate other factoring techniques in creating expressions. Create as many factors as you can. Directions: Form difference of two squares problems by pairing two squared quantities, then find their factors. (Hint: You can create expressions that may require the use of the greatest common monomial factor.) You have learned from the previous activity how factoring the difference of two squares is done and what expression is considered as the difference of two squares. You are now ready to find the factors of the sum or difference of two cubes. To answer this question, find the indicated product and observe what pattern is evident. a. (a + b)(a2 – ab + b2 ) b. (a – b)(a2 + ab + b2 ) What are the resulting products? How are the terms of the products related to the terms of the factors? What if the process was reversed and you were asked to find the factors of the products? How are you going to get the factor? Do you see any common pattern?
• 35. 35 ROAD MAP TO FACTOR Activity 8 Answer the following problems by using the map as your guide. Is the given expression a sum or a difference of two cubes? If Yes If Sum If No If DifferenceAre the binomials sums or differences of two cubes? Use other factoring technique/method 1. What are the cube roots of the first and last terms? 2. Write their difference as the first factor. (x – y). 3. For the second factor, get the trinomial factor by: a. Squaring the first term of the first factor; b. Adding the product of the first and second terms of the first factor; c. Squaring the last term of the first factor. 4. Write them in factored form. (x – y)(x2 + xy + y2 ) 1. What are the cube roots of the first and last terms? 2. Write their sum as the first factor. (x + y). 3. For the second factor, get the trinomial factor by: a. Squaring the first term of the first factor; b. Subtracting the product of the first and second terms of the first factor; c. Squaring the last term of the first factor. 4. Write them in factored form. (x + y)(x2 – xy + y2 ) x y 1. Represent the volume of this figure. What is the factored form of the volume of a given figure? 2. What are the volumes of the cubes? If the cubes are to be joined to create a platform for a statue, what will be the volume of the platform? What are the factors of the volume of the platform?
• 36. 36 Let’s tile it up! Activity 9 Directions: Prepare the following: 1. 4 big squares measuring 4” × 4” represent each square... 2. 8 rectangular tiles measuring 4” × 1” represent each square... 3. 16 small squares measuring is 1” × 1” represent each square... Form squares using: • 1 big square tile, 2 rectangular tiles, and 1 small square. • 1 big square tile, 4 rectangular tiles, and 4 small squares. • 1 big square tile, 6 rectangular tiles, and 9 small squares. • 4 big square tiles, 4 rectangular tiles, and 1 small square. • 4 big square tiles, 8 rectangular tiles, and 4 small squares. 1. How will you represent the total area of each figure? 2. Using the sides of the tiles, write all the dimensions of the squares. 3. What did you notice about the dimensions of the squares? 4. Did you find any pattern in their dimensions? If yes, what are those? 5. How can unknown quantities in geometric problems be solved? QU ESTIO NS ? The polynomials formed are called perfect square trinomials. A perfect square trinomial is the result of squaring a binomial. A perfect square trinomial has first and last terms which are perfect squares and a middle term which is twice the product of the square root of the first and last terms.
• 37. 37 PERFECT HUNT Activity 10 Directions: Look for the different perfect square trinomials found in the box. Answers might be written diagonally, horizontally, or vertically. 25x2 10x 81 18x x2 4 15x 16x2 -24x 9 10x 28x 4x2 -16x 16 15x 25 49x2 16x2 49 8x 16 24x2 9 25 14x 8x 40x 30x 10x 7x x2 12x 25x2 40 12x2 To factor perfect square trinomials: 1. Get the square root of the first and last terms. 2. List down the square root as sum/difference of two terms as the case may be. You can use the following relationships to factor perfect square trinomials: (First term)2 + 2(First term)(Last term) + (Last term)2 = (First term + Last term)2 (First term)2 – 2(First term)(Last term) + (Last term)2 = (First term – Last term)2 Remember to factor out first the greatest common monomial factor before factoring the perfect square trinomial. Ex. 1. Factor n2 + 16n + 64 Solution: a. Since n2 = (n)2 and 64 = (8)2 , then both the first and last terms are perfect squares. And 2(n)(8) = 16n, then the given expression is a perfect square polynomial. b. The square root of the first term is n and the square root of the last term is 8. The polynomial is factored as (n + 8)2 .
• 38. 38 Ex. 2. Factor 4r2 – 12r + 9 Solution: a. Since 4r2 = (2r)2 and 9 = (3)2 , and since (–12r) = (-2)(2r)(3) then it follows the given expression is a perfect square trinomial. b. The square root of the first term is 2r and the square root of the last term is 3 so that its factored form is (2r – 3)2 . Ex. 3. Factor 75t3 + 30t2 + 3t Solution: a. Notice that 3t is common to all terms, thus, factoring it out first we have: 3t (25t2 + 10t + 1) b. Notice that 25t2 = (5t)2 and 1 = (1)2 , and 10t = 2(5t)(1), then 25t2 + 10t + 1 is a perfect square trinomial. c. Factoring 25t2 + 10t + 1 is (5t + 1)2 , thus, the factors of the given expression are 3t (5t + 1)2 . Explain why in Example 3, (5t + 1)2 is not the only factor. What is the effect of removing 3t? Exercises Supply the missing term to make a true statement. a. m2 + 12m + 36 = (m + ___ )2 b. 16d2 – 24d + 9 = ( 4d – ___)2 c. a4 b2 – 6abc + 9c2 = (a2 b ___ ___)2 d. 9n2 + 30nd + 25d2 = (___ __ 5d)2 e. 49g2 – 84g + 36 = (___ __ ___)2 f. 121c4 + 66c2 + 9 = (___ __ ___)2 g. 25r2 + 40rn + 16n2 = (___ __ ___)2 h. 1 16 x2 + 1 3 x + 4 9 = (__ __ __)2 i. 18h2 + 12h + 2 = 2 (___ __ ___)2 j. 20f4 – 60f3 + 45f2 = ___ (2f __ ___)2 Is q2 + q – 12 a perfect square trinomial? Why? Are all trinomials perfect squares? How do we factor trinomials that are not perfect squares? In the next activity, you will see how trinomials that are not perfect squares are factored.
• 39. 39 TILE ONCE MORE!! Activity 11 Description: You will arrange the tiles according to the instructions given to form a polygon and find its dimensions afterwards. Directions: Form rectangles using the algebra tiles that you prepared. Use only tiles that are required in each item below. a. 1 big square tile, 5 rectangular tiles, and 6 small square tiles b. 1 big square tile, 6 rectangular tiles, and 8 small square tiles c. 2 big square tiles, 7 rectangular tiles, and 5 small square tiles d. 3 big square tiles, 7 rectangular tiles, and 4 small square tiles e. 4 big square tiles, 7 rectangular tiles, and 3 small square tiles 1. Cutout 4 pieces of 3 in by 3 in card board and label each as x2 representing its area. 2. Cutout 8 pieces of rectangular cardboard with dimensions of 3 in by 1 in and label each as x representing its area. 3. Cutout another square measuring 1 in by 1 in and label each as 1 to represent its area. 1. What is the total area of each figure? 2. Using the sides of the tiles, write all the dimensions of the rectangles. 3. How did you get the dimensions of the rectangles? 4. Did you find difficulty in getting the dimensions? QU ESTIO NS ? Based on the previous activity, how can the unknown quantities in geometric problems be solved? If you have noticed, there were two trinomials formed in the preceding activity. The term with the highest degree has a numerical coefficient greater than 1 or equal to 1 in these trinomials. Let us study first how trinomials whose leading coefficient is 1 are being factored. Ex. Factor p2 + 5p + 6 Solution: a. List all the possible factors of 6. Factors of 6 2 3 6 1 -2 -3 -6 -1
• 40. 40 b. Find factors of 6 whose sum is 5. • 2 + 3 = 5 • 6 + 1 = 7 • (-2) + (-3) = -5 • (-6) + (-1) = -7 c. Thus, the factor of p2 + 5p + 6 = (p + 2)(p + 3). Ex. Factor v2 + 4v – 21 Solution: a. List all the factors of – 21 Factors of - 21 -3 7 -7 3 -21 1 -1 21 b. Find factors of -21 whose sum is 4. • -3 + 7 = 4 • -7 + 3 = -4 • -21 + 1 = -20 • -1 + 20 = 19 c. Hence, the factors of v2 + 4v – 21 = (v – 3)( v + 7). Factor2q3 –6q2 –36q.Sincethereisacommonmonomialfactor,beginbyfactoringout2qfirst. Rewriting it, you have 2q (q2 – 3q – 18). a. Listing all the factors of – 18. Factors of -18 -1 18 -2 9 -3 6 -18 1 -9 2 -6 3 b. Since – 6 and 3 are the factors of 18 whose sum is –3, then the binomial factors of q2 – 3q – 18 are (q – 6)(q + 3). c. Therefore, the factors of 2q3 – 6q – 36q are 2q(q – 6)(q + 3).
• 41. 41 Remember: To factor trinomials with 1 as the numerical coefficient of the leading term: a. factor the leading term of the trinomial and write these factors as the leading terms of the factors; b. list down all the factors of the last term; c. identify which factor pair sums up to the middle term; then d. write each factor in the pairs as the last term of the binomial factors. NOTE: Always perform factoring using greatest common monomial factor first before applying any type of factoring. FACTOR BINGO GAME! Activity 12 Description: Bingo game is an activity to practice your factoring skills with speed and accuracy. Instruction: On a clean sheet of paper, draw a 3 by 3 square grid and mark the center as FACTOR. Pick 8 different factors from the table below and write them in the grid. As your teacher reads the trinomial, you will locate its factors and mark them x. The first one who makes the x pattern wins. (n + 4)(n – 5) (n + 2)(n + 9) (n – 8)(n – 9) (n + 2)(n + 3) (n + 9)(n + 8) (n + 1)(n + 8) (n – 8)(n + 4) (n – 7)(n – 5) (n + 6)(n + 4) (n + 3)(n + 6) (n – 2)(n + 16) (n + 3)(n + 8) (n + 4)(n – 5) (n + 2)(n + 9) (n – 8)(n – 9) (n + 2)(n + 3) (n + 9)(n + 8) (n + 1)(n + 8) (n – 8)(n + 4) (n – 7)(n – 5) (n + 6)(n + 4) (n – 7)(n + 6) (n – 12)(n + 4) (n – 8)(n + 6) (n + 3)(n + 6) (n – 2)(n + 16) (n + 3)(n + 8) 1. How did you factor the trinomials? 2. What did you do to factor the trinomials easily? 3. Did you find any difficulty in factoring the trinomials? Why? 4. What are your difficulties? How will you address those difficulties? QU ESTIO NS ?
• 42. 42 What if the numerical coefficient of the leading term of the trinomial is not 1, can you still factor it? Are trinomials of that form factorable? Why? Trinomials of this form are written on the form ax2 + bx + c, where a and b are the nu- merical coefficients of the variables and c is the constant term. There are many ways of factor- ing these types of polynomials, one of which is by inspection. Trial and error being utilized in factoring this type of trinomials. Here is an example: Factor 6z2 – 5z – 6 through trial and error: Give all the factors of 6z2 and – 6 Write all possible factors using the values above and determine the middle term by multiplying the factors. Possible Factors Sum of the product of the outer terms and the product of the inner terms (3z – 2)(2z + 3) 9z – 4z = 5z (3z + 3)(2z – 2) -6z + 6z = 0 (3z – 3)(2z + 2) 6z – 6z = 0 (3z + 2)(2z – 3) -9z + 4z = -5z (3z + 1)(2z – 6) -18z + 2z = -16z (3z – 6)(2z + 1) 3z – 12z = -9z (6z + 3)(z – 2) -12z + 3z = -9z (6z – 2)(z +3) 18z – 2z = 16z (6z – 3)(z + 2) 12z – 3z = 9z (6z + 2)(z – 3) -18z + 2z = -16z (6z + 1)(z – 6) -36z + z = -35z (6z – 6)(z + 1) 6z – 6z = 0 In the given factors, (3z + 2)(2z – 3) gives the sum of -5z, thus, making it as the factors of the trinomial 6z2 – 5z – 36. How was inspection used in factoring? What do you think is the disadvantage of using it? Factors of: 6z2 -6 (3z)(2z) (3)(-2) (6z)(z) (-3)(2) (1)(-6) ( -1)(6)
• 43. 43 Factoring through inspection is a tedious and long process; thus, knowing another way of factoring trinomials would be very beneficial in studying this module. Another way of factoring is through grouping or AC method. Closely look at the given steps and compare them with trial and error. Factor 6z2 – 5z – 6 1. Find the product of the leading term and the last term. 6z2 – 5z – 6 (6z2 )(-6) = -36z2 2. Find the factors of – 36z2 whose sum is – 5z. -9z + 4z = -5z 3. Rewrite the trinomial as a four-term expression by replacing the middle term with the sum of the factors. 6z2 – 9z + 4z – 6 4. Group terms with common factors. (6z2 – 9z) + (4z – 6) 5. Factor the groups using greatest common monomial factor. 3z (2z – 3) + 2(2z – 3) 6. Factor out the common binomial factor and write the remaining factor as a sum or difference of the common monomial factors. (2z – 3)(3z + 2) Factor 2k2 – 11k + 12 1. Multiply the first and last terms. (2k2 )(12) = 24k2 2. Find the factors of 24k2 whose sum is -11k. (-3k) + ( -8k) = -11k 3. Rewrite the trinomial as four–term expressions by replacing the middle term by the sum factor. 2k2 – 3k – 8k + 12 4. Group the terms with a common factor. (2k2 – 8k) + (-3k + 12) 5. Factor the groups using greatest common monomial factor. 2k(k – 4) – 3(k – 4) 6. Factor out the common binomial and write the remaining factor as sum or difference of binomial. (k – 4)(2k – 3)
• 44. 44 Factor 6h2 – h – 2 1. Multiply the first and last terms. (6h2 )(-2) = -12h2 2. Find the factors of 12h2 whose sum is h. (-4h) + ( 3h) = -h 3. Rewrite the trinomial as a four–term expression by replacing the middle term with the sum of the factors. 6h2 – 4h – 3h – 2 4. Group the terms with a common factor. (6h2 – 3h) + (-4h – 2) 5. Factor the groups using greatest common monomial factor. 3h(2h – 1) – 2(2h – 1) 6. Factor out the common binomial factor and write the remaining factor as a sum or difference of the common monomial factors. (3h – 2)(2h – 1) WE HAVE! Activity 13 Description: This game will help you practice your factoring skills through a game. Instruction: Form a group with 5 members. Your task as a group is to factor the trinomial that the other group will give. Raise a flaglet and shout “We have it!” If you have already factored the trinomial. The first group to get 10 correct answers wins the game. Let’s extend!! We can use factoring by grouping technique in finding the factors of a polynomial with more than three terms. Let’s try factoring 8mt – 12at – 10mh – 15ah Solution: 1. Group the terms with a common factor. (8mt – 12at) + ( -10mh – 15ah) 2. Factor out the greatest common monomial factor in each group. 4t(2m – 3a) – 5h(2m – 3a)  Why? 3. Factor out the common binomial factor and write the remaining factor as a sum or difference of the common monomial factors. (2m – 3a)(4t – 5h) 1. Do you find difficulty in playing the game? Why? 2. What hindered you from finding the factors of the trinomial? 3. What plan do you have to address these difficulties? QU ESTIO NS ?
• 45. 45 Factor 18lv + 6le + 24ov + 8oe Solution: 1. Group the terms with a common factor. (18lv + 6le) + (24ov + 8oe)  Why? 2. Factor out the greatest common monomial factor in each group. 6l(3v + e) + 8o(3v + 3)  Why? 3. Factor out the common binomial factor and write the remaining factor as a sum or difference of the common monomial factors. (3v + e)(6l + 8o) FAMOUS FOUR WORDS Activity 14 Description: This activity will reveal the most frequently used four-letter word (no letter is repeated) according to world-English.org through the use of factoring. Instruction: With your groupmates, factor the following expressions by grouping and writing a four-letter word using the variable of the factors to reveal the 10 most frequently used four-letter words. 1. 4wt + 2wh + 6it + 3ih 2. 15te – 12he + 10ty – 8hy 3. hv + av + he + ae 4. 10ti – 8ts – 15hi + 12hs 5. 88fo + 16ro – 99fm – 18rm 6. 7s + 35om + 9se + 45oe 7. 42wa + 54wt + 56ha + 72ht 8. 36yu – 24ro + 12ou – 72yr 9. 72he + 16we + 27hn + 6wh 10. 26wr – 91or + 35od – 10wd TEACH ME HOW TO FACTOR (GROUP DISCUSSION /PEER MENTORING) Activity 15 Description: This activity is intended to clear your queries about factoring with the help of your groupmates. Direction: Together with your groupmates, discuss your thoughts and queries regarding factoring. Figure out the solution to each others’ questions. You may ask other groups or your teacher for help.
• 48. 48 What I have learned so far... ________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________. REFLECTIONREFLECTION
• 49. 49 What to UnderstandWhat to Understand Your goal in this section is to take a closer look at some aspects of the topic and to correct some misconceptions that might have developed. The following activities will check your mastery in factoring polynomials. SPOTTING ERRORS Activity 19 Description: This activity will check how well you can associate the product and with its factors. Instructions: Do as directed. 1. Your classmate asserted that x2 – 4x – 12 and 12 – 4x – x2 has the same factors. Is your classmate correct? Prove by showing your solution. 2. Can the difference of two squares be applicable to 3x3 – 12x? If yes, how? If no, why? 3. Your classmate factored x2 + 36 using the difference of two squares. How will you make him realize that his answer is not correct? 4. Make a generalization for the errors found in the following polynomials. a. x2 + 4 = (x + 2)(x + 2) b. 1.6x2 – 9 = (0.4x – 3)(0.4x + 3) c. 4x2 y5 – 12x3 y6 + 2y2 = 2y2 (2x2 y3 – 6x3 y4 ) d. 3x2 – 27 is not factorable or prime 5. Are all polynomial expressions factorable? Cite examples to defend your answer.
• 50. 50 IRF REVISIT Activity 20 Revisit your IRF sheet and revise your answer by filling in column 3 under FINAL column. Initial Revised Final Express the following as products of factors. 1. 4x2 – 12x = ___ 2. 9m2 – 16n2 = ___ 3. 4a2 + 12a + 9 = ___ 4. 2x2 + 9x – 5 = ___ 5. 27x3 – 8y3 = ___ 6. a3 + 125b3 = ___ 7. xm + hm – xn – hn = ___ 1. What have you observed from your answers in the first column? Is there a big difference? 2. What realization have you made with regard to the relationship between special products and factors? QU ESTIO NS ? MATHEMAGIC! 2 = 1 POSSIBLE TO ME Activity 21 Description: This activity will enable you to apply factoring to prove whether 2 = 1. Instruction: Prove that 2 = 1 by applying your knowledge of factoring. You will need the guidance of your teacher in doing such. If a = b, is 2 = 1? a. Were you able to prove that 2 = 1? b. What different factoring techniques did you use to arrive at the solution? c. What error can you pinpoint to disprove that 2 = 1? d. What was your realization in this activity?
• 54. 54 How did you find the performance task? How did the task help you see the real world application of the topic? CRITERIA Outstanding 4 Satisfactory 3 Developing 2 Beginning 1 RATING Explanation of the Proposal (20%) Explanations and presentation of the layout is detailed and clear. Explanations and presentation of the layout is clear. Explanations and presentation of the layout is a little difficult to understand but includes critical components. Explanations and presentation of the layout is difficult to understand and is missing several components. Accuracy of Computations (30%) The computations done are accurate and show understanding of the concepts of special products and factoring. There is an explanation for every computation made. The computations done are accurate and show a wise use of the concepts of special products and factoring. The computations done are erroneous and show some use of the concepts of special products and factoring. The computations done are erroneous and do not show wise use of the concepts of special products and factoring. Utilization of Resources (20%) Resources are efficiently utilized with less than 10% excess. Resources are fully utilized with less than 10%-25% excess. Resources are utilized but with a lot of excess. Resources are not utilized properly. Appropriateness of the Model (30%) The models are well-crafted and useful for understanding the design proposal. They showcase the desired product and are artistically done. The models are well- crafted and useful for understanding the design proposal. They showcase the desired product. The diagrams and models are less useful in understanding the design proposal The diagrams and models are not useful in understanding the design proposal. OVERALL RATING
• 55. 55 In this lesson, I have understood that ______________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ___________. REFLECTIONREFLECTION
• 56. 56 SUMMARY/SYNTHESIS/GENERALIZATION: Now you have already completed this module, let’s summarize what you have just learned. You have learned that product of some polynomials can be obtained using the different patterns, and these products are called special products. You also learned the different examples of special products, such as, perfect square trinomials, the difference of two squares, and the product when you raise a binomial to the third power. This module also taught you to factor different products through the use of different patterns and rules. Factoring that you have learned are: (1) Factoring by greatest common monomial factor, (2) Factoring difference of two squares, (3) Factoring perfect square trinomials, (4) Factoring general trinomials, (5) Factoring the sum or difference of two cubes, and (6) Factoring by grouping. You have learned that the special products and factoring can be applied to solve some real – life problems, as in the case of Punnet squares, packaging box-making, and even on tiles that can be found around us. GLOSSARY OF TERMS: AREA – the amount of surface contained in a figure expressed in square units COMPOSITE FIGURE – a figure that is made from two or more geometric figures FACTOR – an exact divisor of a number GENETICS – the area of biological study concerned with heredity and with the variations between organisms that result from it GEOMETRY – the branch of mathematics that deals with the nature of space and the size, shape, and other properties of figures as well as the transformations that preserve these properties GREATEST COMMON MONOMIAL FACTOR – the greatest factor contained in every term of an algebraic expression HETEROZYGOUS – refers to having two different alleles (group of genes) for a single trait HOMOZYGOUS – refers to having identical alleles (group of genes) for a single trait PATTERN – constitutes a set of numbers or objects in which all the members are related with each other by a specific rule PERFECT SQUARE TRINOMIAL – result of squaring a binomial
• 57. 57 PERIMETER – the distance around a polygon POLYNOMIAL – a finite sum of terms each of which is a real number or the product of a numerical factor and one or more variable factors raised to a whole number power. PRODUCT – the answer of multiplication PUNNETT SQUARE - a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment used by biologists to determine the chance of an offspring’s having a particular genotype. SCALE DRAWING – a reduced or enlarged drawing whose shape is the same as the actual object that it represents VOLUME – the measure of space occupied by a solid body REFERENCES AND WEBSITE LINKS USED IN THIS MODULE: Oronce, O. & Mendoza, M. (2003). Exploring Mathematics. Rex Book Store. Manila, Philippines. Oronce, O. & Mendoza, M. (2007). E – Math: Worktext in Mathematics First Year High School. Rex Book Store. Manila, Philippines. Gamboa, Job D. (2010). Elementary Algebra. United Eferza Academic Publications. Bagong Lipa, Batangas City. Ho, Ju Se T., et al. 21st Century Mathematics: First Year (1996). Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum: Teaching Guide for Mathematics II. Bureau of Secondary Education. Deped Central Office http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punnett_square http://www.khanacademy.org/math/algebra/polynomials/e/factoring_polynomials_1 http://www.xpmath.com/forums/arcade.php?do=play&gameid=93 http://www.quia.com/rr/36611.html http://www.coolmath.com/algebra/algebra-practice-polynomials.html http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/algebra-factoring-2.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8c7B-UaKl0U http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hiGJwMNNsM www.world–english.org http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2009/12/10/how-to-explain-to-clients-that-they-are- wrong/
• 58. 58 http://www.mathman.biz/html/sheripyrtocb.html http://blog.ningin.com/2011/09/04/10-idols-and-groups-pigging-out/ http://k-pop-love.tumblr.com/post/31067024715/eating-sushi http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/tile-vault-midcentury-rec-room-39808 http://onehouseonecouple.blogzam.com/2012/03/ master-shower-tile-progress/ http://www.oyster.com/las-vegas/hotels/luxor-hotel-and-casino/photos/square-pool-north- luxor-hotel-casino-v169561/# http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcwXRHHnV8Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFtjG45-Udk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWu0tH5RC2M http://math123xyz.com/Nav/Algebra/Polynomials_Products_Practice.php http://worksheets.tutorvista.com/special-products-of-polynomials-worksheet.html# http://www.media.pearson.com.au/schools/cw/au_sch_bull_gm12_1/dnd/2_spec.html. http://www.wikisori.org/index.php/Binomial_cube http://www.kickgasclub.org/?attachment_id949 http://dmciresidences.com/home/2011/01/cedar-crest-condominiums/ http://frontiernerds.com/metal-box http://mazharalticonstruction.blogspot.com/2010/04/architectural-drawing.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardboard_box
• 59. 59 I. INTRODUCTION AND FOCUS QUESTIONS RATIONALALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONSAND ALGEBRAICEXPRESSIONS WITHINTEGRAL EXPONENTS You have learned special products and factoring polynomials in Module 1. Your knowledge on these will help you better understand the lessons in this module. Have your ever asked yourself how many people are needed to complete a job? What are the bases for their wages? And how long can they finish the job? These questions may be answered using rational algebraic expressions which you will learn in this module. After you finished the module, you should be able to answer the following questions: a. What is a rational algebraic expression? b. How will you simplify rational algebraic expressions? c. How will you perform operations on rational algebraic expressions? d. How will you model rate–related problems? II. LESSONS AND COVERAGE In this module, you will examine the above mentioned questions when you take the following lessons: Lesson 1 – Rational Algebraic Expressions Lesson 2 – Operations on Rational Algebraic Expressions http://www.newroadcontractors.co.uk/wp-content/gal- lery/road-construction/dscf1702.jpg http://planetforward.ca/blog/top-10-green-building- trends-part-one/ http://www.waagner-biro.com/images_dynam/ image_zoomed/korea_small103_01.jpg
• 60. 60 In these lessons, you will learn to: Lesson 1 • describe and illustrate rational algebraic expressions; • interpret zero and negative exponents; • evaluate algebraic expressions involving integral exponents; and • simplify rational algebraic expressions. Lesson 2 • multiply, divide, add, and subtract rational algebraic expressions; • simplify complex fractions; and • solve problems involving rational algebraic expressions. Module MapModule Map Here is a simple map of the lessons that will be covered in this module. Rational Algebraic Expressions Zero and Negative Exponents Evaluation of Algebraic Expressions Simplification of Algebraic Expressions Operations on Algebraic Expressions Problem Solving Complex Fractions
• 61. 61 III. PRE-ASSESSMENT Find out how much you already know about this module. Write the letter that you think is the best answer to each question on a sheet of paper. Answer all items. After taking and checking this short test, take note of the items that you were not able to answer correctly and look for the right answer as you go through in this module. 1. Which of the following expressions is a rational algebraic expression? a. x √3y c. 4y-2 + z-3 b. 3c-3 √(a + 1) d. a – b b + a 2. What is the value of a non–zero polynomial raised to 0? a. constant c. undefined b. zero d. cannot be determined 3. What will be the result when a and b are replaced by 2 and -1, respectively, in the expression (-5a-2 b)(-2a-3 b2 )? a. 27 16 c. 3 7 b. - 5 16 d. - 2 7 4. What rational algebraic expression is the same as x-2 – 1 x – 1 ? a. x + 1 c. 1 b. x – 1 d. -1 5. When 3 x – 5 is subtracted from a rational algebraic expression, the result is -x – 10 x2 – 5x . What is the other rational algebraic expression? a. x 4 c. 2 x b. x x – 5 d. -2 x – 5
• 62. 62 6. Find the product of a2 – 9 a2 + a – 20 and a2 – 8a + 16 3a – 9 . a. a a – 1 c. a2 – a – 12 3a + 15 b. a2 – 1 1 – a d. a2 – 1 a2 – a + 1 7. What is the simplest form of 2 b – 3 2 b – 3 – 1 ? a. 2 5 – b c. 1 b – 1 b. b + 5 4 d. 1 – b 3 8. Perform the indicated operation: x – 2 3 – x + 2 2 . a. x+5 6 c. x-6 6 b. x+1 6 d. -x-10 6 9. The volume of a certain gas will increase as the pressure applied to it decreases. This relationship can be modelled using the formula: V2 = V1P1 P2 where V1 is the initial volume of the gas, P1 is the initial pressure, P2 is the final pressure, and the V2 is the final volume of the gas. If the initial volume of the gas is 500 ml and the initial pressure is 1 2 atm, what is the final volume of the gas if the final pressure is 5 atm? a. 10ml b. 50ml c. 90ml d. 130ml 10. Angelo can complete his school project in x hours. What part of the job can be completed by Angelo after 3 hours? a. x + 3 b. x – 3 c. x 3 d. 3 x 11. If Maribel (Angelo's groupmate in number 10), can do the project in three hours, which expression below represents the rate of Angelo and Maribel working together?
• 63. 63 12. Aaron was asked by his teacher to simplify a2 – 1 a2 – a on the board. He wrote his solution on the board this way: a2 – 1 a2 – a = (a + 1) (a – 1) a(a – 1) = 1 Did he arrive at the correct answer? a. Yes. The expressions that he crossed out are all common factors. b. Yes. The LCD must be eliminated to simplify the expression. c. No. a2 must be cancelled out so that the answer is 1 a . d. No. a is not a common factor of the numerator. 13. Your friend multiplied x – 1 2 – x and 1 + x 1 – x . His solution is presented below: x – 1 2 – x • x + 1 1 – x = (x – 1) (x + 1) (2 – x) (1 – x) = x + 1 2 – x Is his solution correct? a. No. There is no common factor to both numerator and denominator. b. No. The multiplier must be reciprocated first before multiplying the expres- sions . c. No. Common variables must be eliminated. d. No. Dividing an expression by its multiplicative inverse is not equal to one. 14. Laiza added two rational algebraic expressions and her solution is presented below. 4x + 3 2 + 3x – 4 3 = 4x + 3 + 3x – 4 2 + 3 = 7x + 1 5 Is there something wrong in her solution? a. Yes. Solve first the GCF before adding the rational algebraic expressions. b. Yes. Cross multiply the numerator of the first expression to the denominator of the second expression. c. Yes. She may express first the expressions as similar fractions. d. Yes. 4x – 4 is equal to x
• 65. 65 IV. LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS As you finish this module, you will be able to demonstrate understanding of the key concepts of rational algebraic expressions and algebraic expressions with integral exponents. You must be able to present evidences of understanding and mastery of the competencies of this module. Activities must be accomplished before moving to the next topic and you must answer the questions and exercises correctly. Review the topic and ensure that answers are correct before moving to a new topic. Your target in this module is to formulate real-life problems involving rational algebraic expressions with integral exponents and solve these problems with utmost accuracy using variety of strategies. You must present how you perform, apply, and transfer these concepts to real-life situations.
• 66. 66 11 Rational Algebraic Expressions What to KnowWhat to Know Let’s begin the lesson by reviewing some of the previous lessons and focusing your thoughts on the lesson. MATCH IT TO ME Activity 1 There are verbal phrases below. Look for the mathematical expression in the figures that corresponds to each verbal phrase. 1. The ratio of a number x and four added to two 2. The product of the square root of three and the number y 3. The square of a added to twice the a 4. The sum of b and two less than the square of b 5. The product of p and q divided by three 6. One–third of the square of c 7. Ten times a number y increased by six 8. The cube of the number z decreased by nine 9. The cube root of nine less than a number w 10. A number h raised to the fourth power Lesson x 4 pq 3 2 x – 2 x2 3 c2 x2 – 1 x2 – 2x + 1 10x + 6 b2 – (b + 2) a2 + 2a + 4 10 y b2 (b + 2) √3y √3y y + 2 1 w29 – w – ∛9 1 n3 2 z3 c2 3z3 – 9 h4
• 67. 67 QU ESTIO NS? 1. What did you feel while translating verbal phrases to mathematical expressions? 2. What must be considered in translating verbal phrases to mathematical phrases? 3. Will you consider these mathematical phrases as polynomial? Why or why not? 4. How will you describe a polynomial? The previous activity deals with translating verbal phrases to polynomials. You also encountered some examples of non-polynomials. Such activity in translating verbal phrases to polynomials is one of the key concepts in answering word problems. All polynomials are expressions but not all expressions are polynomials. In this lesson you will encounter some of these expressions that are not polynomials. HOW FAST Activity 2 Suppose you are to print a 40-page research paper. You observed that printer A in the internet shop finished printing it in two minutes. a. How long do you think can printer A finish 100 pages? b. How long will it take printer A to finish printing p pages? c. If printer B can print x pages per minute, how long will printer B take to print p pages? QU ESTIO NS ? 1. Can you answer the first question? If yes, how will you answer it? If no, what must you do to answer the question? 2. How will you describe the second and third questions? 3. How will you model the above problem? Before moving to the lesson, you have to fill in the table on the next page regarding your ideas on rational algebraic expressions and algebraic expressions with integral exponents.
• 69. 69 COMPARE AND CONTRASTActivity 5 Use your answers in the activity “Match It to Me – Revisited” to complete the graphic organizer. Compare and contrast. Write the similarities and differences between polynomials and non-polynomials in the first activity. POLYNOMIALS NON - POLYNOMIALS How Alike? How Different? In terms of ... ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ In the activity “Match It to Me”, the non–polynomials are called rational algebraic expressions. Your observations regarding the difference between polynomials and non – polynomials in activities 4 and 5 are the descriptions of rational expressions. Now, can you define rational algebraic expressions? Write your own definition about rational algebraic expressions in the chart on the next page.
• 70. 70 MY DEFINITION CHART Activity 6 Write your initial definition of rational algebraic expressions in the appropriate box. Your final definition will be written after some activities. Try to firm up your own definition regarding the rational algebraic expressions by doing the next activity. CLASSIFY ME Activity 7 ` m + 2 0 c4 m – m k 3k2 – 6k y + 2 y – 2 a y2 – x9 c a – 2 1 – m m3 1 a6 Rational Algebraic Expressions Not Rational Algebraic Expressions ___________________________ ______________________________ _______________________________ ______________________________ My Initial Definition ___________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ My Final Definition QU ESTIO NS ? 1. How many expressions did you place in the column of rational algebraic expressions? 2. How many expressions did you place under the column of not rational algebraic expression column? 3. How did you differentiate a rational algebraic expression from a not rational algebraic expression? 4. Were you able to place each expression in its appropriate column? 5. What difficulty did you encounter in classifying the expressions?
• 71. 71 In the first few activities, you might have some confusions regarding rational algebraic expressions. However, this section firmed up your idea regarding rational algebraic expressions. Now, put into words your final definition of a rational algebraic expression. MY DEFINITION CHART Activity 8 Write your final definition of rational algebraic expressions in the appropriate box. _____________________________ ______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ My Initial Definition _____________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ My Final Definition Compare your initial definition with your final definition of rational algebraic expressions. Are you clarified with your conclusion by the final definition. How? Give at least three rational algebraic expressions different from those given by your classmate. Remember: A rational algebraic expression is a ratio of two polynomials provided that the denominator is not equal to zero. In symbols: P Q , where P and Q are polynomials and Q ≠ 0. In the activities above, you had encountered rational algebraic expressions. You might encounter some algebraic expressions with negative or zero exponents. In the next activities, you will define the meaning of algebraic expressions with integral exponents including negative and zero exponents . MATH DETECTIVE Rational algebraic ex- pression is a ratio of two polynomials where the denominator is not equal to zero. What will happen when the denominator of a fraction becomes zero? Clue: Start investigating in 4 2 = 2 ≫≫ 4 = (2)(2) 4 1 = 4 ≫≫ 4 = (1)(4)
• 72. 72 LET THE PATTERN ANSWER IT Activity 9 Complete the table below and observe the pattern. A B C A B C A B C A B 2•2•2•2•2 25 32 3•3•3•3•3 35 243 4•4•4•4•4 45 1,024 x•x•x•x•x x5 2•2•2•2 3•3•3•3 4•4•4•4 x•x•x•x 2•2•2 3•3•3 4•4•4 x•x•x 2•2 3•3 4•4 x•x 2 3 4 x RECALL LAWS OF EXPONENTS I – Product of Powers If the expressions multiplied have the same base, add the exponents. xa •xb = xa+b II – Power of a Power If the expression raised to a number is raised by another number, multiply the exponents. (xa )b = xab III – Power of a Product If the multiplied expressions is raised by a number, multiply the exponents then multiply the expressions. (xa yb )c = xac ybc (xy)a = xa ya IV – Quotient of Power If the ratio of two expressions is raised to a number, then Case I. xa xb = xa-b , where a > b Case II. xa xb = 1 xb-a, where a < b QU ESTIO NS ? 1. What do you observe as you answer column B? 2. What do you observe as you answer column C? 3. What happens to its value when the exponent decreases? 4. In the column B, how is the value in the each cell/box related to its upper or lower cell/box? Use your observations in the activity above to complete the table below. A B A B A B A B 25 32 35 243 45 1,024 x5 x•x•x•x•x 24 34 44 x4 23 33 43 x3 22 32 42 x2 2 3 4 x 20 30 40 x0 2-1 3-1 4-1 x-1 2-2 3-2 4-2 x-2 2-3 3-3 4-3 x-3
• 73. 73 QU ESTIO NS? 1. What did you observe as you answered column A? column B? 2. What happens to the value of the numerical expression when the exponent decreases? 3. In column A, how is the value in the each cell/box related to its upper or lower cell/box? 4. What do you observe when the number has zero exponent? 5. When a number is raised to a zero exponent, does it have the same value as another number raised to zero? Justify your answer. 6. What do you observe about the value of the number raised to a negative integral exponent? 7. What can you say about an expression with negative integral exponent? 8. Do you think it is true to all numbers? Cite some examples? Exercises Rewrite each item to expressions with positive exponents. 1. b-4 5. de-5 f 9. l0 p0 2. c-3 d-8 6. x + y (x – y)0 10. 2 (a – b+c)0 3. w-3 z-2 7. ( (a6 b8 c10 a5 b2 e8 0 4. n2 m-2 o 8. 14t0 3 – 2 – 1 CHART Activity 10 Complete the chart below. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________ _______________________________________ ____________________________________ _________________________ ________________________ ____________________ ________________ _____________ _________ _____ __ 3 things you found out 1 question you still have 2 interesting things
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