Fm17 12 tank-gunnery_(mar77)pt1

Fm17 12 tank-gunnery_(mar77)pt1

  1. Steve Hagarty
    Fm17 12 tank-gunnery_(mar77)pt1
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    Fm17 12 tank-gunnery_(mar77)pt1
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    • 1. CneNce FM t7-t2 No.r TANK GUNNERY Effectiveuponrcceipt.This changeupdatesFM 17-12,21March19?7.Changedmaterial is indicated by a colored bar in the margin or star (*) preceding the material, Make the following pagechanges. C1 HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENTOFTHE ARMY Washington,DC,29September1978 Insert i, ii 2-5,24 3'3,34 4-9,4-10 4-13,4-14 4-21th 4-23 6-9 7-3thru 7-8 8-3,8-4 8-9,8-10 9-1thru 9-4 9-?,9€ 9-13,9-14 9-17thtrL 922 9-25thru S29 10-3,104 11-5,11-6 11-11,11-12 12-3thru 12-10 13-9,13-10 15-5,15-6 77-',7,r7-8 A-1 Index 1 thru Ind€x 16 ! : Remove i, ii 2-5,2$ 3-3,3-4 4-9,4,10 4-13,4-14 4-21tbtu 4-23 6,9 ?'3 thru 7€ 8-3,8-4 8-9,8-10 9-1tbru 94 9-7,9-8 9-13,$14 9-17thrn g-22 9- thru 9-29 10-3,104 115,11$ 11-11,11,12 12-3tiru 12-10 13-9,13-10 15-5,15€ 15-13,15,14 17.',7,17-8 A-1 File this change sheetin ftont of the publication for referenceplrposes.
    • 2. 8yOrderottheSecretaryoftheArmy: BERNARDW. ROGERS Genetal, United StatesAmy . Chiefofstafl Official: J. C, PENNINGTON BI iqadieI GeneI aI, United StatesAmy TheAdjutant General DISTRIEUTION: ActiveAmy, USAR,and,4Rlyc- TobedistributedinaccordancewithDAForml 2-l 1A,Require- mentsfor EngineerBattalion,Armored,Infantry,and Infantry(Mechanized)Divisions{Otyrqr blockno.28);andTankGunnery(Otyrqrblockno.128). Additionalcopiescanberequisitioned(DAForm17)lromtheUSArmyAdjutantGeneralPublica- tionsCenter,2800EasternBoulevard,Baltimorc,MD2122O.
    • 3. Field Manual No. U-12 *FM 1712 HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Wa,shington,DC, 21 March 197?. TANKGUNNERY Page PARTONE. INTRODUCTION,THREAT, AND STANDARDS INTRODUCTION. THREAT GUNNERYSTANDARDS PARTTWO. PRINCIPLESOF TANK GUNNERY CHAPTER PREPARETO FIRE CREWDUTIES TARGETACQUISITION AND IDEI{TIFICATION RANGEDETERMINATION FIRING POSITIONS DIRECTFIRE STABILIZATION RANGECANDSAND INDIRECTFIRE AMMUNITIONAND TARGETDESTRUCTION SPECIAI,GUNNERYTECHNIQUES. MACHINEGUNS PI-A.TOONFIREDISTRIBUTIONANDCONTROL AERIAI ENGAGEMEI{TTECHNIQIJXS. CHAPTER 1. 2. 3. + Thi6 fi€ld manul Bup€ilede3 FM 17-12,10 November 1972, TC 17-!2-2, Ocaober 1574, TC 17-12-3,30 Jue 1975, TC 17-12-5, 19 S€pt€mber 1975, DA Pa.E360-1a, aDdAsubiscd 1?-12. 1-1 4-l '7-1 6-l 9-1 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1G1 11-1 12-l 1&1 14-1 16-1
    • 4. c1, FM17-',t2 PART THREE. TANK GUNNERY TRAINING CHAPTER 1?. ARMOR IJNIT GUNNERY TRAIMNG PROGR.A.MS 18. INNOVATIW TRAININGTECHNIOUES 19. RANGES Page 18-1 :. 19,1 20. TANK GUNNERYTABLES APPENDD( A. REFERENCES *rNonx SUPPLEMENTS (issuedseparately) * Fut tl-tzl, ranh Gunnery (XMI) (tn be vtblis]ned) FM 17-12-2,Tank Guntuery(M60/M6041/M60AI AOS/M48A5) FM 17-12-3,Tank Gunnery(M60A3,(tobe published) FM 17-12-4,Tank Gunnery(M60A2) Fa417-12-5,Tank Gunnery(M551/M551A1) FM 17-12-6,Tanh Gunnery(M728CEV) FM 17-12-7,Tank Gunnery(TraininEDeuices) Tocomply with guido,nceof the Assists,ntSecretatyof Defense(Manpower atud.ReserueAffairs), this Field Ma.nuaLhas beenreuiewed.for the useof neutral languaga Unlessotheruise noted.,uhere the third person singular is used.in thispublieation,theword"he"wiLlbeunderstoodtostand,for both matcuLineantl femininegenders. 2Ul 1-16 u
    • 5. CHAPTER 1 FM 17.12 r.1. PREFACE What w;lLthe nett war be lihe? How will tankers have to fight on its battlefields? While no onecan answer these questions for certain, tankers must have someideaof whai to expect-what *'eapons are likely to be on the battlefield, and important chaEcteristics of enemy forces that might beencountered. About ueapons, hno thinga are certarin: E Lo.rg range, high velocity tank cannon and longer raage, accu- ' rate, antitank glided missiles dominate today's battlefield. They are so accurat! that anythiEg they can fire on can be hit;so lethAl j that an,4hing they can hit can be' INTRODUCTION Becauseof these codsidemtions,any vehicle or unit that exposesitself on the battlefield will be destroyedunless: Q . enemyweaponsthat can fire on the exposed elementhave beendestroyed.or l) "uppressed.or @ theenemys.abilityt6fire on the exDosedelementhas beensomehow inhibiied-by lhe cleveruseof lerrain, , smoke,night, fog,badweather, $Ltilg-of any or*all of these. i;:., ,/,t:2rkilled. tr Long range air defens€ cannon and miesilee dominaae the air over today'e bsttlefreld. Any' thing th€y can fire on cao be hit; what they hit can be killed, A bout the enern!, trto things are certain: tr llis equipment ie good, and, in spiteof somedifferencesin sophisti- catio4 and quality, pmbably nearly . as goodas outs, E IIe will outnumber us; he believesA'.. in using ma66esof men and ei his foes, I -1
    • 6. FM 17-12 We can aleo be certain that US Armv forcesthat have to 6ght the first battle oi battles of the Dext war will be Feady ortnumbered.Wecan expeo early battlesof tbenextwa! tobeshortand violeDt,with each sidetrying L wir_an advantage thar will give lDe upper hand tn hegotiahonsto end the conflict. Therefoie, WiDning the filst battle or batfles ofthe neit war ia easential. In order to win, US tank crews must outtnaneuver tbe eneby and outghoot him at least 6 to l. Winning agabst heavy oddsand outkill- ing theeneby 5to I will not beeasy,butit can be done. It can bedonebv: tr knowing the enei E understaDding tie battlefield El knowing how to ioaximize the effec- tiveness of our o*n weapon6,while einimizing their I'ulnelability E being absolut€ly convinced that we can alrd will win Four time€ out offrve, the side that fireg 6rst in a tank battle x'ill qrid. th rflg Tankplatooninroverso slope positions engagingThEat First Echelon Fo.ce3 attacking undsr artillery bar16ge; S eco nd Echelon tollowing. 7'.i THE MODERITIBATTLEFIELD
    • 7. FM17-12 1-2. PURPOSE Thie manual descdbes: E T'heenemy threat. tr Standarrls and tests to measure individual, crew, sectioD, and pla- toon pioficiency. E Tadk gunery principles,methods, and t€chniques. D Saople schedulee and suggestion8 for tank glnnery tlairring programs. ! New gunnery tables with tabulated ammunition requirements. i How to setup and usetank range8. tr Tank6 in the US Arroy inventory. D Stantlards and tests to measuE individual, crew, 6ection, arrd pla- toon prcfrciency in conjunction with the apFopriat€ Army Tlaining and Evaluation Ploglam (ARTEP). 1-3. SCOPE This manual has three paytsand sevelal supplements.Part I outlinesthepurposeand soope of the manual, describes the enemy (called the "Thrcat"). and 6et€forth stand- aral-sfor measuring gunnery profrciency. Part II plesent6 tank gunnery principles comrnonto all types of tanks. Part III discussestank gumery fiaining, emphasiz- ing year-rcund proficiency, descibes the Tank Crew Gunnery Skills Test which replacesthe PreliEinary GunneryExamine- tion (PGE),and explains tank gunnery tableg stressingepeedof engagementand accula- cy. Supplementsaddress features unique to eachtype tank currently iDtlte Army invento- ry and the combat engineer vehicle (CEv). Also in this seriesis FM 17-12-?.which deals with tank gulrnery devices. M6OAl | - J
    • 8. FM17-12 R€levantparts of TC 1?-12.1,"Tips for Tanke*," TC 17-12-2,"Tlaining Tahk and Sheridan Crews to Shoot," TC 17-12J,"Bat- tlefreld Gunnery Techniquesfor Tanke," ald TC 17-125,"Tahk Gunnery Tlainitg," have beenincorporated in this manual. Thie manual ehouldbeueedwith approp- riate vehicle technical manuals. Information found in t,|e vehicle techdcal matnal, such a8 staps for boEsighting, sl,a[dard ?,emmg, and slmchronizatioD of l,an} weapoDssjr$ tems will not be rcpeat€din this manual. Nomal tlistribution of this manual will consist of Parts I tiru III with appendix A, "R€ferences," and the supplement for the type tanL assignedto the unit. The looseleaf format facfitat€s adding not46 and posting change6. Supplementsdescdbing other fanks may be requestedfron the US Army Adjutant Genera.lPublications Centrr, 2800 Eastern Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland n2m. Users of this manual are elrcoutagd to s€nd recommendedchangesor colttdrentsto improve the publication to: Assistant Com- mar!dant, US Army Ardo! School, ATTN: ATSB-TD, Fort lhox, KY 40121. 1-4
    • 9. CHAPTER 2 THREAT 2-1. INTRODUCTION TO THE THREAT The Tbreat Aimy is one of the largest, and oneofthe bestequippedand besttmined armies in th€ world. Basically a mounted force,it is heavy in tanks and artillely. Its weaponscomplementeach other i$ battle, andThreatra.ticsstressmassingweaponsih depth to overpower the opposition- This chapter describesthe Threat in sufficient detailsothat UStankerscantrain to counter Threat strengths and take advantage of TANKS 115-mmSmoothboreGunT-62 Threat weaknessesto win th€ first battle of the next war-outnumbered. Threat weap- ons the US tanker is likely to facein great nr]mbels are discussed,including weapon descriptions, strengths, and weaknesses. Suggestionsfor deleatingeachThreat weap- on will be given. These weaponswill be shown tog€ther in a_ttackand defenseset- tirlgs to givethe US tanker a morecomplete pictureof Threat capabilities. 2.2. THREAT WEAPONS a. Tanhs and Aseault Guns. ltre following pagesillustate Thleat tanks and assault guns, and descibe their strengths aIrdweaknesses, FM 11-12 +6 rolndsperminule 30 nph {48lmph) 310miles(600km)* 'Crursingrangew'thinternalfuellanksonly-
    • 10. FM 17.12 10O-mmSmoolhboreGunT-55 3 5 roundsperminute 122-mmGunT-10 25 nph (42kmph) 1s5miles(250km)t 2-2 inrernaltuel tanks only.
    • 11. FM 17-12 76-mmcun PT-76 0-8 rcundsp€. minuta 25 mphl4Oknph) 160mires{260kh). SELFPROPELLEDASSAULTGUNS 85-mm Antitank GunASU.85 I roundsp€r ninut€ 27 mpfi1,14knphl 155miles1250ro)' 57-mm AntitankGunASU-57 30 (mainsun) 28 mph{45 lmd,l 155milesl25Okmf 'Cruisinsrangewathinie,oaltuetranksonty.
    • 12. FM 17 12 2-4
    • 13. c1,FM17-12 At battlesighi ranges, he will see this:
    • 14. c1,FM17-12 Thleat main battle tank6 aresEaller than the US M60A1. They have a cruising mnge of 500h without external fuel tanks and caD attain speed8of about 30mph. The T-62,the bain8tay tank in the Tbreat srmor€d forceis equipped with a 115-mm smoothbore gun which files boti high velocihr, armoi- pierciug, fin-stabilized, discading-sabot (HVAPFSDS), high explosive(HE), aDdhish explosive antitank (HEAT) rouDds. IMPFSDS is considered the maia tanL- defeating round. T.55tsnks mount a 100-nm gun, which also fues a sabot-t}'pe rcund. Thleat force heary tanks have a slightly shorter crui8ing range than meabumtanks, are much moreheavily armored,and mount a 122-mm gun which fires armor-piercing cappedtlacer ammunition (APC-T)aBwell as HEAT and high explosive (HE). The PT-76, BMP, and BRDM compleErentthe striLing might of the Tlueat tanks. Well.arned fot their size snd weight, airbome assault guns such a6 ASUSS provide mobile armored stliking pow6rto Tbreat airbome and ground fotces. Threat taDk fire conhol ie relatively simple compared to t}rat on US tanle. Currently, most mount Dorangefitrder siroi- lar to US tanks. All Threat tanks are equippedwith excellent inftared night vrew- ing devices,and have a superior underwater snorkeling capability. THREAT
    • 15. FM11 12 Strengths of Threat Main Battle Tanks- Low silhouetle Self-screencapabi|ity................... Simplefire conlrol IR night ision devices.................. Underwa(ersnorke|ing................. High velocity 115-mm APFSDS round makes them harder to hit, makes them hard to acquire, makes them easier to operate and maintain, increase effectiveness at night, permits them to closs water barriers quickly, gives them tank'defeating clout. This round travels one mile every second. Its accuracy gives the T€2 tank crews a better than 50/50 chance of hitting a fully-exposed, frontal, stationary tank in the open with the fiIst round at rangeslo 1,800melers,or a moving target haveling in the open atconstant spe€d at ranges to 1,000meters. lP.. l. I il.l,I ' Snorkelcanbeattached in 15 q|inlltes. J tA'.--. -hF.- t:;;Y''-':. *iF" J{ole. Threatforcesareintroducinga newmediumtank,theT-72. Basicallyamuchimproved versionof the T€2, it has a rangefindet,six setsofroad wheelsand track supportrollers,and crewarrangementsimilar to US tanks. Severaldifferentprototypesexistin limited numbers. 2-7
    • 16. FM 17 BUT_ Threat tanks do have weakne6ses. * Their fighting compadments are .onsiderablysmailerlhan thosein US tanks. The crewis crampedand freedomto mov€is restricted. Crew fatit{uecanbea biggerfactorthanrn US tanks which have moreroom. * Smaller turret interior and larger main gun ammunition (115-mmus 105mm) meansa slowerrate of fire than US tanks. * Becauseof its small fighting com- paltment, the Threat T-62tank has 23fewerroundsof main gun ammu nition than the M60A1. In tank duels,therefore,Threat tanks may run out o{ ammunition soonerthan US tarks. * Some main gun ammunition rs strappedalong the tunet walls, and hits abovethe tunet ring may cause secondaryammunition explosions. * Mosi Threa(lanksslnwa combina- tion of ammudtion and fuel in the right ftont of the hull; a round into this area,and thetankwill probably blow up. * Smallnessof the fighting compart- ment increases crew urlnerability. The gr:rrner sits in the left sideof the turret behind the driver and in front of thetank commander.Aprojectile passing through the left front o{ the hull has a good chanceof hittmg both tl)e driver and gtnner. A projectile passing thrcugh the left flont of the tDrretcouldhit boththe gunner and tank commander. * The tank commander of the T-62 cannot firc the main gun ftom the commander'sposition. FUELT ili l!';..! l;---,' ?::, ii.i.il iii----l | ;-'i li ; < IJ l - :) ti il " -a' i:/)e NER 2-a
    • 17. FM t7 12 * B€causeof low silhouette, Threat tanks cannot depress theil main guns as far as the M60-series.This means that in certain situations Threat tanks must be exposedmore than US tanks rvhenfrring themain gun. * Threat tank tunets cannot be tls versednearlyas faslo. as preciseli as US tank tultets. This will enable US tankers to engageflank targets sooner, and track moving targets betterthan Thrcat taDkers. .'fl= !.,--.i& a 2-9
    • 18. * Many cur-rentThrcat tanks are not equipped with a tangefinder, and their long range gunnery is les6 accurate than oum beyond 2.000meterc. Presently, the stadia reticle is the pdncipal optical aid the Threat tank gunnei has to determin€ range. FM 17 12 Thisisbowrl look[o(heT-62gunner! x.-r-'f;*l,t '.^, ; l:X": -"''i*;,,;:"-,,- : l'; STADIALINES BASELINE 210
    • 19. M17 12 * To find the range, time permithng, the Threat gunner placesthe target within the stadia and baseIines and readsthe mnge wherc the tank touchesthe stadia line. The stadia line is basedon the he,?it (not width or lelrgL}])ol a fully erposedM60A1 tank. If the US tank is not fully exposed, the gunner cannot range aa accuiately-another reason for US tankers to use hull down positions. Il:re retrcle view aboveillustrates this ranging confusion on two tanks at the samerange. The fully exposedM60A1 can beranged accumtely at 1,600m(topoftunet). Thehull-down M60A1to its right reads about 2,600m. In the heat ofbattle, however,the lhreat gunner employstheEnozing ranEetechnique. Dneto the high velocity (5,340lls) of the Threat armor-piercing round, the projectile doesnot exceed the height ofthe M60A1tank outto approximately 2,000mete$. Thus,in afast moving situahon the threat gunner makesaquick checkwith his stadia rangefinder to seeif youarewithin range, aims at your centerofmass, and fires. On flat terrain, his accuacy is consideledgood.
    • 20. FM 17-12 WHEN YOU TRAVEL EXPOSED YOU WILL BE DESTROYED. FoI US tankers to reduce the odds and minimize enemyweaponeffectiveness,th€y muat: E Use terrain to maximum advan- tage at all times, ! Use hull-down f|l.ing positions. ! Move using overwatch. ! Avoid neat geometric forma- tions. ! SuppresslikelJ eDeDypositions using e variety of means-tank, artillery, mortar, air fires, E Obscure targets using tank white phosphorus (WP) or mor- tar./artillery smoke,/WP. ! Conceal their positions using tank-mounted gtenade launch- ers when these are available. E Make sbrupt speedand direction changes while rnoving. b, Antitanh Guided Missiles and. Eochek. ln addition to large numbersof tanks, Threat forces can be expectedto satumte the battlefield with antitank guided missiles (ATGM) and rccket propelledgre- nades(RPG).RPG'sareshoulder-firedinfan- try antitank weapons;cunent modelsare effective at ranges to 500 meters.Threat forceshavetwotypesofATGM's:SAGGERis wire-guided and thus invuherable to elec- tronic countermeasures(ECM);SWATTERis radio-guidedand vulneiable to ECM. ATGM'S aie highly accurateat ranges to 3,000met€rswherethey can defeatall known armor. All are highly mobile. Missiles can be mountedon the BMP armoredpersonnel carlier, the BRDM scoutvehicle,and on helicopters. The SAGGER can be back packed to a firing position by a three-man 2-12 3,O00m 2,500m 2,O00m 1,500m 1,000m Om 'ATGM gunner cannot acquirc his missile fot conrrol
    • 21. FM17.12 Vehicle-mounted ATGM's can be fiied with the crew buttoned-up-with overhead cov€r and protection against small arms fire- ltrey can be remol€ly flred fTomposiuons as far as 80 meters ftom the vehicle mount. The suitcas€ SAGGER may be remotely fired BRDMWITH SWATTER BMP WITH SAGGE from positions15metersfrornthe launchtng rail. R€latively inexpensive comparcd to other tank'killing weapons,ATGM'Scan be expectedin large numbets. Evasive and suppressivetechniquesusedagainstThreat tanks arc also effective aeainst ATGM. le;:.:!'i ' -"=:'" "ii';'tii e"t"i*=; 2-13
    • 22. FM17-12 SUITCASE SAGGER In spiteoftheir reliability, mobility, andlong range cffectiveness,Threat antitank weap- ons havetheir weaknesses,Missilesarenot effective at night or in periods of poor visibility. Threat ATGM gr:nners must simultaneouslytrack bothtargetand missile with an opri.al viewer.while flying the missilewith a "joystick" on the controlbox. Missiles have a minimum rangelimitation. 'l'he missilehasto fly about500metersafter launch for the gunner to capture it in his viewerand fly it accuratelyto target. Becausethe missile is highly sensitive to coutse corrections, distractions such as suppressive fire or erratic speed and direction changes by the target will csuse glnners to overcorrect, losing control of the missile. Artillery and mortar suppressive frres will either neutralize the gunner or force him inside a vehiclewhere his field ofview is limited. The targetmustremainin viewto behit. US tankers who move behind cover, obscure themselvesby smoke,or concealthemselves in vegetation rcduce T'hrcat missile and rocket hit probability. Bushes can break guidancewires causingloss of missilecon- trol. Trcesor heavybrush can detonatethe warhead. Since Threat ATGM'S are very slow(12.5s€condsto fly 1,500m;25s€condsto fly 3,000m)fhereis ampletime for a UStank crewto reactifthe missilefiring is observed. Overwatchvehicleshelp provideearlywarn' ing of ATGM launchings. 2-14
    • 44. FM',t112 tata --"4'*/3L-. 9) Recoil ex.ercising check. To prevent leaking seals and corrosion of exposed cannon tube surfaces, the recoil mechanism musl be exercised during nonfiring periods. Il sealsdo nor receive lubrication either through firing the main gun, or exercising the system, they become brittle and leak. The machined surfaceofthe grn tube will collect moisture and rust ifnot prcperlyserviced-Checksincludelookingfor leaks and examining your Equipment Log- book (DA Form 2408-4,"Weapons Record Data Cald") for the last listedrecoilor marn 'gunfiring exerciseofyour tank guntube. If ir hasbeenncithcrfirednorexprcisedduring time frames establishedin the operato!'s manual, contact organizationai mainte- 70) Gasparticulatefilterunit. To enaure crew safety, the gas particulate filter unit must be checked during crew maintenance. The gas particulate filter unit installed on your vehicle protectsthe crew from chemical and biological agents. Yourliiemaydependonlhisunirluncrioning properly. Toperformthecheck,turn theunit on, let the motorrun to cleardirt and debris, check the hoses for leaks, connect your tanker'smaskto the particulateunit, putthe maskon,and checkthemaskfor serviceabil- ity. If the unit fails to operate,or youdetect damagedhoses,notily organizationalmarn- 11) Communications.The tank's intercom and radio must be checked daily. To engage targets rapidly tank communications must operate prcpetly- Checksshould include a completeintercom and extemal phone examination. With poweron, placeeachcrewpositionintercom control box through all phasesof operation, survpyrhpconne.ringcablesfordamageor exposedwires,lookfor corrosion,ard ensure "O" rings are presenton cableconnectors. CheckeachCVC helmetlbr condition,€nsure
    • 45. FM 17 12 thereis no wateror oilinpadding, andensure microphones mount prcperly in front of mouth. Checkradiosand radio mountsfor properinstallation and needfor spot paint' ing,andthatintelnally mountedcoolingfans rotatefteelywhenactivated.Finally,makea radio checkwith a radio locatedat least 10 milesaway. If any deficienciesaredetected, notify th€ oryanizational field radio repair- c. Night fire control chechs. To engage targets effectively at night, night fire control devices must be checked prior to use. I) lnlryrPd. Thrs nighl wiewing system is install€d on most main battle tanks. It is composedof binocula$, peri scopes,and a searchlight. It will bereplaced in the future by a passive/starlightsystem. Infrared instruments cannot be exposedto direct sunlight when energized.Suchexpo- surecausesinternal damage. (a) Binoculars. To check the binoculars,ensurehatlery is properlyin- stailedin powerchamberand that electrical connectorsareproperlyconnectedand have no frayedor brokenwires.Alsocheckthatno cracksor dentsaie presenton the binocular housing. Ifyou detectany deficienciesor are unabletofocusthebinoculars,tum themin to organizationalmaintenancefor repail (b) Slgifs. Ali optic sights are delicate in design ard must be handled with care. Infrared sights should be installed or removedonly underdirectsupervisionofthe tank commander. Checks made by crew membersincludeluming onpower,focusing the green ring, and repeating the steps for emergencypowermode. Thetank operator's manual provides stepby-step procedures. Ensureyourinfraredsightchecksincludethe driver'snight vision equipment. t. SPaffhlight. Since its in. troductionwith theM60tank,theAN/VSS 1 xenonsearchlighthas beenournightvision work-home.Theinfraredandwhitebearnsof light producedby the xenonsearchlightare sufficient, when coupledwith capability of th€ tank sighting system, to engage targets within battlesight range. Each tank clew must ensure that the xenon searchlight mounted on th€ir tank is operational. The .v'lrlnerabilityofthe searchlightto enemy fire makes it essential that frequent checks be made ofthe searchlight's operational status. If the light fails to illuminate, noti{y organr- zational maintenance. The xenon search- light will eventually be replaced by a more advanced system, POWER CHAMBER ELECTRICAL coNNqcToRs NOTE: Remove battery after use. 47
    • 46. FM 1t 12 2) Passirc. A passive sighting systemsimilarto that usedon theM551and M60A2rrll soon be mountpdon a,l main battle tanks. This system providesbetter observation capability than the older rn' fraied systemat similar ranges. (aj Binoculars. Passivebinoc uJars{ill gire tank .rclls thecapdbilir)of vicing lhe battlefieldwirhoutsear.hLighl assistance.Passivebinocularswill amplifl' the dimmest starlight and seeminglyturn night to day. Operatorchecksofthe binocu- lars are limited to turning on the po*er s,!'itchand focusingthe diopter scales. If binoculars fail to illuminate or focus,turn them in for repair. (b) Sigftls. All infraredsights arecomparrhlewiththe pirk searchright. butpassivesightscannotbeusedin conjunc tion with the AN,/VSS-1xenon searchlight discussedabove. Targetacquisitionis possr- bieunderstarlight at battlesight rangesi'lth passivesights. Operator.ecks ol passie sights are limited to operation of the filter. activating potler, both normal and emerg' ency, focusing the reticle and green field of vien'. l{sights fail to operateor focus,notify ihe unit tunet mechanic. tc) NecLrinftarcd l pinh") scarchlight. This searchlight operates rn both a "pink" artdwhitelightmode. Tocheck the searchlight's operation, use the same procedureas for the infraredmodel explained above. (3j Autitiar"- gun laying rcticles. To ensure sighto with auxiliary gun laying reticies are adjusted for night fire, check thatthey are aligned withthe primary gun laying reticles. You will not hit the target firing with improperly aligred auxiliary gun laying reticles. Verify align- ment before darkness each nighi. Use the auxiliary gun laving reticle boresighting knobs to make adjustments and control reticie light intensity with the rheostat knobs. Ensure the reticle looks like- t_ _l_ _|t-+---t- THIS -l NOTTHIS 48
    • 47. cl, FMt 7-12 4-A. BORESIGIITING AND SYNCTIRONIZATION a, Boreeighting, Boresighting estab- lishes a convergent relationship betweenthe axis of the tube or banel of a weaponand its direct-fire sight. Boreeighting is thebaeiefor all sight adjustments and must be pmperly performed for each tank-mounted weapon prior to zercing. When a tank has been prcperb bolesight€d, the extendedaris ofthe tube will intelsect with variouo lines of sight at the bo&sight lange (generally as closeto 1,200metersaBpossible). BORELINEOFSIGHT LINEOFSIGHT-FIoHTENOHOUSING LINEOFSIGTIT-LEFIENOHOUSING LIN€OF SIGHT-PEFISCOPE IINE OF SIGHI_TELESCOPE 4-9
    • 48. c1,FM17-12 T$o generally accepted methods exist for initially determining the cent€rline of the main gun bore prior to aligrring the tube on the aiming point duing the boresighting plocess-the standard two point rcfercnce system employing binocula$ and thread, and a muzzleboresight systememploying an instrument such as the Wataon borcsight device. The two point referencesystem has gained wide acceptancesince it is easy and 3 CAI-IBERS (r2.4INCHESI requiresno specialequipment. Becauseof the slight bending (droop)of the tube caused by unevenheat distribution within the metal, however,theiwo point systemcanbeinaccu- rate since the tlue centercannot be precisely determined. Useof amuzzleboresight devrce compensatesfor most tub€ ilroop and there- forc allows for morc accurate bolesighting. Whenever available, the muzzle bolesight deviceshould be used. lin. oa sishr as detemined tine ol siOht.!der.rminod bythefinal 3 calibers ot tub€ {.ccoonted torwith muz2l6 bor6.i9hl d€vice). Fnins tesis indiclt. th.t rho po.irion ol the linrl lhreo @libers 112,4 incho.) of the tlbe are imponant in dot€minins th. itriko of the rcund. Th6 rwo poinr r€lorence sy.tom N.rlgss our any tube droop bll the mu2zle devic6 .ccuralelv m6ar!rcs the Dosition or lho LINE OF SIGN] BOREIINEOFSIGHT LINEOF SIGHT APPBOX 'I,2OOM b. Syrrchronization. The crew muat ensure sightB are synchronized before ettempting to zero the tadk weaponssystem. S)'nchronizationensures that gun arrd sight.s rcmain sligned when elevated and depressed. A sJmchronization check is performed quarterly by organiza- tiodal mairtenance personnel with assist- Whan prcperly synchronized. lanool light convorg$ d targ€twith linool sishtlhrough bo.6 oliube rlg3rdl€$ ol anceftom the tank clew. Whensight€ arenot synchronized. effective tank gunnery is impossible.The most common method for s,'nchmnization is the outdoor method re- quiring a synchronization ramp and a boresightpanel. A muzzleboreeightshould not be usedwhen checking oynchronization eince tube droop may con@al synchrcniza- tron error. 4-10 BOBE LINEOF SIGHT
    • 54. f M r 7 1 8 Reoadandre lay rargelusrngihe "G sr.Jrrlsrothecenieroi lhe bcresrgh1knobs lrack ro the cenier of the palrern IhP, refer yo!r rf e sfor !lroup Dl rllovrng I R e ' a y l o t h e c e n l e ro f l l r el a r g e l G p a l r e f n a f d m a n u a l c o n l r o l s m n f r r m a to n r o u n d 9. With the maingun loaded.re-laytheretrcle armingcrosslo the exaclarmrngpointusedto frre the 3 round shot grolrp Use step 7 procedures. 10. Without distu.bingthe lay of the gun, unlockthe elevalronand defleclionboresighl knobsand movethe gunner'speriscopereiicle aimingcrossto the cenlerof the 3 roundshot groupby rotatingthe knobs. l1 Re Javlhe dimingcrossof the gunner's pe',scopeIo lhe originalaimingpointbv using the manualeievationand traverslngcontrols. Re-layusingslep7 procedures.Firea roundto checkthe accuracyof lhe selting 14. lf il doesnot hit wiihin the 24'inchcircle, loadanotherroundand repeattheprocedure1o completea new 3 roundshotgroup. Usesteps 9lhru 11 to resetthegunner'speriscopereticle. 15. Fie anorhercheck round. lf the round farlsro srrike4/ithinrhe 24-inchcircle,.SfOP Clearall weapons,and requestassistance.lf the roundhitswilhin thecrrcle,proceedio step 16 16. Using manual elevationand traversing controls,re lay lhe gLrnner'speriscoperetacle aimingcrossto the lop leftcornerof thetarget. Ensurelinalmovemenlofthegunisinelevdlion l 'G ' pattern) Withourdisturbingthe layofthe 9un, unlockthe elevaiionand deflectionbore- sight knobs on the telescopeand refer the appropriaterangelineonihe appropriatereticle to the top left cornerof lhe targel. !srngrhe 12 llf second confirn)atton round mtsses c//c/e./Feloadanclre-lay 1ocenter of ihe target an.j i re a th rd conf rmalion round After yo! ' r ' . d r o u d . - i o a d c n J r ' l r ' o t " . . e _ . T h e n r e i e r y o u r s L g h t st o r i r e c e n l e r o i r h e 3 round conlirmat on gro!p rar ay to tfe center and llre a check round llltl)echeckroundfalls wttlttn the circle, conttnue vttlt step 73: il it.Joes not. call a cease fie for lltat tank and provtde 13 Re lay1orhe lpper e{l oi lhe targetand reierali srghlslo the samc armng pornlby nrovrngtheboresghtknobs l /hen reieringthe meterrangeIne ro the rar0etratherrran the 1A (lf yau sense a hi Atnhtnthe 24-hch 12. lf the check round strikes within the ./r./e/ Yo! arezeroed lPtu)ceedtc step | 3 ) 24-inchcircle,proceedto step 16. 11 lU foLt sense ihe roon.l hn odstde th-. c?r./€,1Re oad and man!a 1yre ay to tne center o l l h e t a r g e l a n d f i r e a s { r . o n dc o n f r m a l o n tornl lll n tlits whhtn )e ctrclega ta step 13.1 13. l{ the checkroundIailslo stfikewithinthe 24-inchcircle,loadanorherround.re'laythe gunlo thee.racloriginalaimingpoint,andfire.It the secondroundhitswilhinthe24-inchcircle, you haveattaineda zero. Proceedio siep 16.
    • 55. FM17-12 14. Recordthe maingune$ablishedzerofor eachsightintheturretandonDAForm2408-10 in yourlogbook. "G" PATTERN I _t_ 15. Reponanyzerorefinementtothetowerfor record-Clearall weapons,fly- flags. I I N 4-17
    • 56. FM17-12 INDEPENDENTZERO 1. Tank,this istow6r. Performall prepareto- firechecksfoundinvouaooerator'smanual.The range to the boresight panel is melets. 2. lupon completion of pteparc-tofite Checks-) A(e you preparedto zeroTEnsure thalzeroingroundsareaboardandlhatrounds of the sametypeareof the samelot number 3. Areyourbrakeson? Tankchocked? 4, Turn c,omputeron and ensure pointers alrgn, 5. Using manual controls only, lay and fr.e a HEP-TP-Twarmup round at (designatedateal 6. Load HEP-TP-Tamhuniton. The rangeto yolr larcet is - meters. Firea 3-round shot group using manual controls and your telescope. Reler to steps 6 and 7 on your ch€cklist.Reloadpriort9 layingfor eachround. Take up the same sight pictureprior to each round. Donotreferyoursightsuntilloldtodoso bythetower. Givemean"ONTHEWAY prior to firing each round. 7. Reloadand re-iav backto the centeroI the target using the "G" pattern. Then rcfer your srghtsto thecenteroftheshotgroupbymoving the boresighlknobs. 4-18
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