Evolution of human resources

Evolution of human resources though several eras

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  1. Eesha Gupta
    Evolution of human resources though several eras
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    Evolution of human resources
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    • 1. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCES By: Eesha Gupta (13810029) Shrishty Jindal (13810073) Vignesh (13810081)
    • 2. T I M E L I N E Pre 1750 • Ancient times 1750 – 1900 • Industrial Revolution 1900 • Social Responsibility Era 1910 • Scientific Management Era 1926 • Trade Unions 1930 • Human Relations Era 1936 • Behavioural Science Era 1960-1970 • System Approach Era 1964 • Contingency Approach Era 1980 • Operational Approach
    • 3. ANCIENT TIMES (Pre 1750) People were not aware of any kind of HR system or policy. Despite this, ancient texts have many recorded instances of HR practices: • The ancient Code of Hammurabi from Babylon in 1750 BC sets obligations for expert craftsmen to transfer their skills to apprentices and healthcare obligations for owners of slaves. • Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in the 1st century AD, warned about the health hazards of employees handling zinc and sulphur. • In 1556, the German scientist described occupational hazards of employees. • In 1700 Bernardo Ramazzini, known as the "father of industrial medicine," published in Italy the first comprehensive book on industrial medicine. Timeline
    • 4. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) EARLY SIGNS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: • Cessation of feudalism • Shift from subsistence agriculture to a commercial based economy • Spectacular growth of towns and villages along with middle class
    • 5. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) • Replacement of human effort and skill by the work of machines • Development of factory system • Rationalisation of work and division of work • Commodity concept of labour • management responsibility delegated to foremen or first line supervisors • foreman usually used force and fear for controlling the workers • Government did nothing to support workers Timeline
    • 6. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ERA (1900) Robert Owen, a British industrialist is considered to be the first to adopt humanistic and paternalistic approach. He viewed that the social and economic environment influence the physical , mental and psychological development of workers. His philosophy was that owner is like a father and worker is like a child. He proposed the following: Provision for reduced working hours Housing facilities Education of workers and their children Gave human treatment to workers Timeline
    • 7. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) ALSO CALLED TAYLORISM • One of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and to management. • Themes like rationality, empiricism, work ethics, efficiency and elimination of waste and standardization of best practices. • Transformation of craft production into mass production at a larger scale • Knowledge transfer between workers.
    • 8. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) • Clear cut division of work and responsibility between management and workers • Following concepts gained popularity during this era: Time study Motion study Efficiency movement Fordism logistics Operations management Timeline
    • 9. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TRADE UNIONS (1926) • Condition of workers were very pathetic after factory system • This was the period when state intervention to protect the worker’s interest was felt necessary. • During this period: – Workers started to form associations – Trade Union Act, 1926 was passed in India.
    • 10. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TRADE UNIONS (1926) The basic philosophy was to safeguard worker’s interest and to sort out their problems like:- • Child labor • Long hours of work • Poor working conditions. The unions used strikes, lockouts etc as weapons for acceptance of their problems.
    • 11. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TRADE UNIONS (1926) These activities of trade unions gave rise to personnel practices such as:- Collective bargaining Grievances redressal Arbitration Employee benefits programs Installation of rational wage structures Timeline
    • 12. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) HUTMRAAND ER EULNAITOINOSN S() ERA (1930) • This particular period focused on the feelings, attitude and needs of the workers as human beings. • Between 1925 and 1935 Hugo Munsterberg, a psychologist suggested the use of psychology in selection, placement, testing and training the employees in an organization. • During the time of 1924 and 1932, Elton Mayo conducted series of experiments at Hawthorne Plant.
    • 13. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) HUTMRAAND ER EULNAITOINOSN S() ERA (1930) Hawthorne Experiment’s Findings • Physical environment should be good • Favorable attitudes of workers and work team towards their work • Fulfillment of worker’s social and psychological needs • Workers can be motivated through job security, right to express their opinion on matters related to them other than monetary benefits.
    • 14. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) HUTMRAAND ER EULNAITOINOSN S() ERA (1930) Based on findings it was quoted • Relation between superior and subordinate should relate to social and psychological satisfaction of employee • Ultimate goal is to make employee productive and it can be done by attaining satisfaction of employee Timeline
    • 15. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) BEHTARHVAUIDMOEUA UNRNA RLIEO SLNACSTI EI(ON)NCSE EERRAA (1936) • Human Relations Era: Happy Worker = Productive Worker As a Corollary to this • Behavioural Science Era: Human Behaviour as a means to achieve efficiency in performance.
    • 16. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) BEHTARHVAUIDMOEUA UNRNA RLIEO SLNACSTI EI(ON)NCSE EERRAA (1936) It was concerned with social and psychological aspects of human behavior. Some of imp elements were: • Individual behavior is linked with group behavior • Informal leadership rather than formal leadership • Motivation by self control and self development • Improving efficiency through Self operating Timeline
    • 17. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA SYSTEM APPROACH ERA (1960-1970) System approach to management views the organization as a unified, purposeful system composed of interrelated parts. Features: • A system is basically a combination of parts, subsystems. Each part may have various sub-parts. • An organization is a system of mutually dependent parts, each of which may include many subsystems
    • 18. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA SYSTEM APPROACH ERA (1960-1970) Characteristics: •Systems have structure: defined by parts and their composition •Systems have behavior: which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy or information •Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other •System(s) have by itself function(s) or group of functions .
    • 19. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA SYSTEM APPROACH ERA (1960-1970) Advantages: • It aims at meaningful analysis of organizations and their management. • It facilitates the interaction between organization and its environment. • It guide manager to avoid analyzing problems in isolation and to develop an integrated approach. Disadvantages: • The approach does not recognize the differences in systems. • Over-conceptual and abstract • Systems philosophy does not specify the nature of interactions and interdependencies. • Lack of Universality Timeline
    • 20. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA COSNYTSITNEGME NACPYP RAOPAPCRHO AECRHA ((1)964) • The Contingency approach is a management theory that suggests the most appropriate style of management is dependent on the context of the situation and that adopting a single, rigid style is inefficient in the long term. • Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing. • Contingency managers typically pay attention to both the situation and their own styles and make efforts to ensure both interact efficiently.
    • 21. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA COSNYTSITNEGME NACPYP RAOPAPCRHO AECRHA ((1)964) FEATURES: • Management action is contingent on certain action outside the system or subsystem as the case may be. • Organizational action should be based on the behaviour of action outside the system so that organization should be integrated with the environment. • Because of the specific organization – environment relationship, no action can be universal. • It varies from situation to situation LIMITATIONS: • Inadequate literature. • Complex • Difficult empirical testing • Reactive not Proactive. Timeline
    • 22. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA SCYOSNTTEIMN GAEPNPCRYO AACPHPR EORAAC (H) () OPERATIONS APPROACH (1980) Process management is an approach to management that views the activities of an organization as a set of processes undertaken to advance organizational goals. A manager using this technique attempts to design organizational processes - activities - that emphasize quality and performance. FEATURES: • Management is the study of what managers do. It emphasis on management functions and various concepts and principles involved in performing these functions.
    • 23. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA SCYOSNTTEIMN GAEPNPCRYO AACPHPR EORAAC (H) () OPERATIONS APPROACH (1980) • Management functions are universal irrespective of the type of organizational or level of management in an organization, though there may be differences on emphasis on a particular function in a particular organization or at particular level. • The conceptual framework of management can be constructed on the basis of the analysis of management process and identification of management principles. • The central core of managing revolves around planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. This central core of management is unique and is not found in other activities.
    • 24. INDAUNSTCRIEIANLT R TEIVMOELUST (IPOrNe (11775500-)1900) SSOCCIIEANLT IRFEISCP MOANNSAIBGIELMITEYN ETR EAR (A1 9(10901)0) TBRHEAUHDMAEAV UNION RUIEORLNAALST IS(O)CNIESN ECREA ERA SCYOSNTTEIMN GAEPNPCRYO AACPHPR EORAAC (H) () OPERATIONS APPROACH (1980) Criticisms of Operational Approach are as follows: • The basic tenets of operational management that is various managerial functions are not universally accepted. Management functions differ from author to author. • Various terms used in this approach are not commonly shared. Example: People substitute leading for directing. • It claims universality or management principles while management differs from organization to organization and from level to level. • Operational Approach emphasizes static conditions whereas the organizations have to function in dynamic conditions. Timeline
    • 25. THANK YOU
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