BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
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- BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE
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- 1. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE (BCI) Popular Science Feb. 2004
- A brain-computer interface is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain ( or brain cell culture) and an external device.
Brain Computer Interface
- Sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain machine interface (BMI).
- In USA, more than 200,000 patients live with the motor sequelae (consequences) of serious injury. There are two ways to help them restore some motor function:
- Repair the damaged nerve axons.
Nicolelis, 2001 Motivation for BCI/BMI Research
- Build neuroprosthetic device.
- Invasive BCI
Detecting neural activity
- Non-Invasive BCI
- Invasive BCI are directly implanted into the grey matter of the brain during neurosurgery.
- They produce the highest quality signals of BCI devices .
- Prone to building up of scar-tissue
- Targeted repairing damaged sight and providing new functionality to paralyzed people (neuroprosthetics).
- 6. Invasive BCI
- Neuroimaging technologies as interfaces are used.
- Signals recorded in this way have been used to power muscle implants and restore partial movement in an experimental volunteer.
Non Invasive BCI
- Non-invasive implants produce poor signal resolution .
- 8. Non Invasive BCI
- 9. EEG
Mussa-Ivaldi & Miller, 2003
- Electroencephalography (EEG) is the measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain as recorded from electrodes placed on the scalp.
- 10. EEG Data Recordings of brainwaves produced by an electroencephalogram
- 11. Typing words by mind
- 12. Help impaired hands to grasp by mind EEG-MRP Hold cup for drinking http://www.dpmi.tugraz.at/
- 13. Play videogames by mind Leuthardt et al.,2004 ECoG based BCI Video Pfurtscheller et al., 2003
- 14. Neuron spike based BCI
- high speed real time control
- precise control of movement
- high risk for clinical application
- 15. Miguel Nicolelis Experiment Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and collegues for use on Rhesus monkeys
- 16. Real time movement of 2d/3d objects 2D movement control 3D movement control
- 17. Animal BCI Research Garrett Stanley's recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus (top row: original image; bottom row: recording)
- 18. Working of Simple BCI Schematic diagram of a BCI system
- P300 detection
- EEG mu-Rhythm Conditioning
- VEP Detection
- How can you type words by mind?
- The P300 (P3) wave is an event related potential (ERP) which can be recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) as a positive deflection in voltage at a latency of roughly 300 ms in the EEG.
- 21. Experiment Design
- Alphabet row/column was flashing randomly on the computer screen
- Human subject was gazing at the screen
- Human EEG was recorded simultaneously
EEG amplifier Human subject Visual feedback
- P300 components in EEG was extracted in real time for letter guess
- 22. Experiment Design (Donchin, 1988, 2000) Flashing of rows/columns containing the desired letter will elicit P300 response at vertex
- 23. Application Release The Power of Brain
- 24. 1.Artificial Sensory channel Artificial Hearing Since 1978, about 70,000 cochlear recipients worldwide. www.cochlearamericas.com
- 25. Artificial Vision http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.09/vision.html
- 26. 2. Artificial Motor Channel Nicolelis, 2001 Nicolelis, 2001
- 27. 3. Neural Disorder Control Parkinson’s disease Seizure prediction and control Nicolelis, 2001 www.medtronic.com
FDA approval for brain implant Cyberkinetics Inc. Neural Signals Inc.
- BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University.
- 29. Future: Silicon Cognition Ted Berger , University of Southern California MIT Technology Review, May 2003
- 30. Silicon Cognition Ted Berger , University of Southern California MIT Technology Review, May 2003
- BCIs will help creating a Direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain and any external devices like computers.
- BCI has increased the possibility of treatment of disabilities related to nervous system along with the old technique of Neuroprosthetics.
- Techniques like EEG, MEG and neurochips have come into discussions since the BCI application have started developing.
- This has provided a new work area for scientists and researchers around the world.
- 32. Disadvantages
- In case of Invasive BCI there is a risk of formation of scar tissue.
- There is a need of extensive training before user can use techniques like EEG
- BCI techniques still require much enhancement before they can be used by users as they are slow.
- Ethical implications of BCI will arise in future
- BCI techniques are costly. It requires a lot of money to set up the BCI environment.
- Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a method of communication based on voluntary neural activity generated by the brain and independent of its normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles.
- The neural activity used in BCI can be recorded using invasive or noninvasive techniques.
- We can say as detection techniques and experimental designs improve, the BCI will improve as well and would provide wealth alternatives for individuals to interact with their environment.
- 34. Refrences
- http://www.en.wikipedia.com/braincomputerinterfaceView More