11.code switching and its implications for teaching mathematics in primary schools in ile ife, nigeria

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    • 1. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011Code Switching and Its Implications for Teaching Mathematics in Primary Schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria Olusegun Jegede Department of English, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. P.O. Box 44, Enuwa Post Office, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria jegedeolusegun@yahoo.comAbstractThe study investigated code-switching and its implications for teaching Mathematics in selected primaryschools in Ile-Ife. The data for the study were obtained from five mathematics teachers and fifty pupils fromfive purposively selected primary schools through ethnographic observation and structured interviews. Datacollected were analysed using Myers-Scotton’s Matrix Language Framework model, as well as descriptiveand inferential statistics. The results showed that teachers in the schools used code switching as an approachto the acquisition of literacy in that it allowed each pupil to use each of his/her languages in a natural,meaningful way as the various classroom activities were being implemented. The study concluded that theuse of code switching in multilingual mathematics classrooms does not result in a deficiency in learning, butis a useful strategy in classroom interaction and efficient way of transferring knowledge to students.Keywords: Code Switching, Mathematics, Mother Tongue, Language, Medium of Instruction, ClassroomInteraction1. IntroductionEducation serves the purpose of equipping an individual with what is necessary to be a productive memberof the society. According to Cloud, Genesee and Hamayan (2000), the central tenet of education typicallyincludes the imparting of knowledge. The fact that education entails the impartation of knowledge andskills as well as awakening and developing the intellectual potentials of the learner underscores the pointthat the role of language use in instruction is important. According to Kyeyune (2003:173), theeffectiveness or otherwise of the teaching-learning process at whatever level depends on whether or noteffective communication has taken place between the teacher and the learner.The medium of instruction or the language in which education is conducted has far reaching consequences inall educational systems. According to Cummins (2000:510), the language in which education is conducted isthe language in which basic skills and knowledge are imparted into the population and the language in whichthe production and reproduction of knowledge is done. It is observed that the language in which education isconducted is very important as the selected language may enhance or impede the quality of education(Salami, 2008:2). Therefore, language is an important issue, especially in multilingual classrooms where wehave children from different linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds.The language of instruction can also be a problem, especially when the content or concepts being taught arenot in the learners’ home language. Learning certain subjects, such as Mathematics, in English may be aproblem for pupils whose home language is not English. Learning such subjects in the pupils’ home languageor supplementing English with the pupils’ home language (code switching) can lead to a better understandingof the contents being taught.41 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 2. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011In this study, we investigated code switching and its implications for teaching mathematics in primaryschools in Ile-Ife Nigeria. In particular, we will focus on the use of two languages (English and Yoruba) inmathematics classrooms in Ile-Ife.1.1 Language-in-Education Policy in NigeriaEarlier, in 1976, the cultural charter for Africa, articulated by the Organisation for African Unity (OAU) inArticle 6(2) stated that member states should promote teaching in national languages in order to acceleratetheir economic, political and cultural development (Afolayan, 1999). Musau (2003:156) observes that theimplementation of these charters and declarations has, however, been problematic. According to him, inAfrica only, the languages of the former colonial masters seem to be favoured, while the indigenouslanguages seem to be losing out. Adegbite (2003:186) notes that the dominance of the language of the formercolonial masters matches the status of English in Nigeria. Apart from the generally positive attitudes thatNigerians have towards English, they tend to have a negative attitude towards their indigenous languages(Adegbija, 1994:47; Babajide, 2001:3 & Afolayan, 1999:83). In order to free its citizens from the yoke ofan imperial language, English, the Nigerian Government at various times proposed various forms of languagepolicies to encourage and stimulate the growth and development of its over 400 indigenous languages.According to Ajayi and Oyetayo (2002: 61), all these policies are geared toward strengthening the indigenouslanguages and particularly the three majority languages recognized by the Nigerian constitution, namelyIgbo, Hausa and Yoruba.The principles on which the educational language policy is based are equal opportunity of access to thelanguage of education, thorough grounding in the childs own language, thorough mastery of English, andbilingualism in two Nigerian languages (Ajayi and Oyetayo, 2002:62). However, the role of language ineducation is usually taken for granted by linguists (Bamgbose, 1994:2). Since acquisition of knowledge ismost effectively carried out through the mediation of language, it comes naturally to linguists to assume thatany educational policy must devote a substantial part to language.The little attention given to language in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004) is as a result of thenature of the Report of the 1969 curriculum conference from which the NPE emerged. According toBamgbose (1994:2), the main pre occupations of the Report are with purpose, objectives, goals, structures,teacher training, ownership, funding etc. He notes that only one paper in chapter one has a section on the‘Language of Instruction’ arising from which there is a recommendation that the Nigerian primary schoolchild should be well-grounded in his mother tongue as well as learning English and/or any of the regionallanguages as second and/or third language. Against this background, the few language provisions in theNPE could be seen as major advances on the Report of the 1969 curriculum conference.The NPE is one of the various forms of language policies proposed by the Nigerian Government to encourageand stimulate the growth and development of the over 400 indigenous languages in it. The NPE stipulates amother tongue or the language of the immediate community as a medium of instruction both at pre-primaryand primary levels of education, except that at a later stage in the primary school, English will become amedium of instruction. In other words, as Salami (2008:3) and Omoniyi (2003:135) have noted, the mothertongue or the local indigenous language is expected to be used for content area instruction in all subjects,except English, from pre-primary and primary 1 to 3, and later English takes over from primary 4 to 6 whilethe mother tongue is taught as a subject.This policy envisages a transitional bilingual education model. According to Salami (2008:4 citing Putz,2004:76), the model allows children, temporarily, to use their home languages, and they are taught through42 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 3. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011that medium until they are considered proficient enough in the official language (English) as their newteaching medium. In transitional bilingual education programme, teachers are bilingual. They are able toswitch from the learners’ mother tongue to English according to the learners’ needs. It is observed that achild who acquires basic literacy or numeracy concepts in one language can transfer these concepts andknowledge easily to second or third or other later-acquired languages (Fafunwa, 1998:98; Salami, 2008:3).Salami (2008), in his study of mother tongue education and bilingual classroom practice in Nigeria, observesthat rather than implementing the transitional bilingual education policy envisaged by the NPE,practitioners in the field have resorted to evolving a varied ‘policy’ of bilingual instruction. According tohim, English is used as early as the first year of the child’s primary school education while the mother tonguecontinues to be used throughout the fourth year when the transition to English should have commenced. Thereason for this is that using English in multilingual context often leads to unsatisfactory quality of educationalperformance (Kyeyune, 2003:174). For instance, studies (such as Setati, 2002, 2005; Adler, 1998, 2001;Plüddemann, et al, 1999) on Mathematics learning in multilingual classrooms have shown that pupilsperform poorly in mathematics due to the specialised concepts such as divisor, denominator, standarddeviation, quotient, radius, circumference, etc, which cannot be well explained in English.If the use of English as a medium of instruction creates a learning problem in multilingual mathematicsclassrooms, then it is necessary to find solutions which are workable in the classrooms. Salami (2008), Setati,M. (1998), Setati and Adler (2001), Ncedo, Peires & Morar (2002) and Moschkovich, (2004) have advocatedthe use of the learners’ first language to supplement English. These studies have presented the learners mainlanguages as valuable resources for learning mathematics. This study supports these earlier studies and alsotries to show code switching as a valuable communicative resource in mathematics classroom.1.2 Statement of Research ProblemThe education community has paid little attention to the simultaneous development of the two languages inbilingual children. In particular, bilingual childrens mixing of languages in the process of languageacquisition has been viewed unfavourably by the mainstream society, and it has been "the least systematicallystudied" (Tabors & Snow, 2001: 166). As a result, there is a great need to examine bilingual childrens codeswitching behaviours in an educational setting so that a more comprehensive understanding of thisphenomenon can be reached and be used to inform the instructional practices of the teachers of bilingualchildren in Nigerian schools.In multilingual mathematics classrooms in South Africa, studies such as Ncedo, Peires & Morar (2002),Setati, Adler, Reed & Bapoo (2002), and Howie, (2003) have shown that code switching is a valuablecommunicative strategy for learning mathematics contents. However, in Nigeria, the use of code switching inmultilingual mathematics classrooms has not been well-examined. Therefore, the present study focuses onthe use of code switching and its implications for teaching mathematics in primary schools in Ile-Ife Nigeriain order to show its implication in teaching and learning mathematics in Nigerian primary schools.2. Methodology2.1 Research DesignThis study focused on the use of code switching and its implications for teaching mathematics in primaryschools in Ile-Ife Nigeria. Questionnaires were designed to elicit responses from respondents. We alsoattended lessons and took notes of classroom interactions between the teachers and the pupils. This design43 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 4. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011enabled us to be able to identify the languages used in mathematics classrooms; we were also able to analysethe features of these languages and discuss their implications on the teaching and learning of mathematics.2.2 Research Population and Sampling TechniqueThe research population included five public primary schools in Ile-Ife, five mathematics teachers (one fromeach school) and fifty pupils, ten from each school. These teachers and pupils were chosen from primary four.We chose primary four because it is at this level that the teachers are expected to transit from the use of themother tongue to English. Five schools of the thirty-eight public primary schools in Ife Central LocalGovernment are chosen. These five schools are used to represent the three major languages in Nigeria. Twoschools, Anglican Central School, Sabo and St. Peters Primary School, Sabo, were taken from the area wherewe have people of Yoruba extraction; another two schools, A.U.I. Primary School, Sabo and MethodistPrimary School, Sabo, were taken from the area where we have people from Hausa extraction, while oneschool, St. Bernard’s Primary School, Lagere, was taken from the area where we have people from Igboextraction.However, the schools have a good number of pupils and teachers who are predominantly Yoruba speakers, aswell as Hausa and Igbo children who are also able to speak and interact in Yoruba in and outside theclassroom.2.3 Data CollectionData for this study were gathered through both structured and unstructured interviews and participantobservation. The interviews contained questions regarding language use in multilingual mathematicsclassrooms. A teacher of mathematics and ten pupils, five boys and five girls, were interviewed from eachschool. The teacher’s interview contained questions on (1) what language(s) they usually use duringmathematics lessons and why they use it/them, (2) whether they code switch or not, (3) why they code switchif they do, and (4) what they think are the implications of using code switching as a communicative strategyin mathematics classrooms. The pupils’ interview contained questions regarding their preference for oragainst code switching and the reasons for their preferences.2.4 Data AuthenticationTo ensure that the respondents give authentic responses, we sat in in mathematics lessons in the schools.During each lesson, we observed and took note of classroom practices regarding language use. After eachlesson and interview with the respondents, we compared and contrasted their responses with what actuallytook place in the classroom. This is a way of making the study feasible, viable and authentic.2.5 Procedure for Data AnalysisThe language(s) used in the mathematics classrooms visited were identified. The features of the languageswere analysed and their implications on the teaching and learning of mathematics were discussed. Theimplications of code switching as a communicative device in English as Second Language classrooms werealso discussed. The analysis of the data was carried out using the matrix language framework model proposedby Myers-Scotton (2001).2.6 Theoretical Framework44 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 5. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 20112.6.1 Matrix Language Framework Model (MLF Model)While some studies (for example, Brice 2000) analyse the linguistic features of code switching in theclassroom, Myers-Scotton (2001) proposes the matrix language framework model (MLF model) which laysemphasis on identifying the matrix language and the embedded language in a sentence. The model benefitedfrom the insights of earlier researchers who recognised the unequal participation of languages in codeswitching (Myers-Scotton 2006: 234).The model holds that in a code switched sentence, one language acts as a domain or matrix language (ML)and the other as a subordinate or embedded language. According Myers-Scotton (2001: 23), the matrixlanguage plays the main role in setting the sentence frame where the code switching arises and the embeddedlanguage is considered as having been inserted in a matrix language frame to achieve a purpose. Ferguson(2003: 39) observes that the introduction of the embedded language is necessary because it helps pupils tounderstand the subject matter; it helps teachers to motivate, discipline and praise pupils; it facilitatesinterpersonal relation between the teacher and the pupils.The theory is applicable to identify the matrix or dominant language and the embedded or subordinatelanguage used in a multilingual mathematics classroom, where code switching is used and to determine theimplications of both languages on Mathematics learning.3. Data Analysis3.1 Teachers’ Choices of LanguageTable 1 shows languages mostly used in the classroom from the schools and lessons sampled in Ile-Ife.Question 1a was asked to find out, from teachers, what language they tended to use most for instructingpupils during mathematics lessons.The data show that all the five teachers responded to the question. Two teachers (40%) claimed to useEnglish; two teachers (40%) claimed to use English and Yoruba, while one teacher (20%) claimed to useYoruba and Hausa. Our observation and record from sitting in at the lessons show that the claims of the firsttwo teachers are true because the teachers taught the greater part of the lesson in English. The two teachersare from Ansarul Islam Primary School, Sabo and St Bernard Primary School, Lagere. The claims of thetwo teachers that they taught mostly in the mother tongue and English are also right. The teachers actuallytaught the lessons in English and interpreted each sentence in Yoruba. The teachers are from AnglicanCentral School, Sabo and St. Peters Anglican Primary School ‘A’, Sabo. The only teacher that claimed touse Yoruba and Hausa as the main medium of instruction was from Methodist Primary School, Sabo. Theteacher, being a Yoruba man, had to learn Hausa to be able to teach the pupils, because most of them wereHausas.3.2 Reasons for the Teachers’ ChoiceFrom table 1, we observed that two teachers indicated that they tended to use English most as the medium ofinstruction in mathematics classrooms. The teachers are from Ansarul Islam Primary School, Sabo and St.Bernard Primary School, Lagere.Question 1b was asked to find out the reasons for the teachers’ preferences in question 1a.45 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 6. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011The teacher from Ansarul Islam Primary School, Sabo responded that: English Language is an official language in Nigeria and it enables pupils to do external exams. We also use English because we are not expected to use Yoruba language to teach in upper classes.The teacher observed that the status of English in Nigeria should not be underrated by using the language ofthe immediate environment solely as the medium of instruction in education at the expense of English, whichis Nigeria’s official language. She also observed that external examinations are in English, as a result, pupilsshould be taught in the medium of English for the greater part of their lessons. She noted this would allow thepupils to be able to read and write in English during the exams.The teacher from St. Bernard Primary School, Lagere responded that: English is the medium the school authorities and local inspectors said we should be using and that is why it is the main language.The teacher observed that the school authorities and the local inspectors of education (LIE) said the mediumof instruction from primary four upward should be English. During the lesson, the teacher tried to teach in themedium of English alone. The teacher was trying to conform to the instructions of the LIE. However, thepupils had a hard time coping in the medium of English. The teacher had to switch back and forth betweenEnglish and Yoruba for the pupils to really understand what she was teaching them.Table 1 also shows that two teachers indicated that they tended to use both English and Yoruba most in theclassroom. The schools involved are St. Peters Anglican Primary School ‘A’, Sabo and Anglican CentralPrimary School, Sabo.The teacher from St. Peters Anglican Primary School ‘A’, Sabo responded that: It would let them (the pupils) understand the teaching.The teacher believed that the use of Yoruba together with English would aid the pupils understanding of thetopic taught. Our observation and record show that the pupils actually enjoyed the lesson more in their mothertongue (Yoruba) than in their second language (English). Their responses also show that they had somemeasure of understanding of the topic.The teacher from Anglican Central Primary School, Sabo responded that If we use only English, they will not cooperate.The teacher observed that the pupils show more cooperation when she used their mother tongue (Yoruba)than when she taught in English. Our observation and record also confirmed this. The pupils paid moreattention to the teacher each time the teacher switched from English to Yoruba. This showed that they wereready to cooperate with the teacher, provided she taught them in Yoruba.We will also observe from table 1 that only a teacher (from Methodist Primary School, Sabo) indicated thathe used Yoruba and Hausa most. He responded that:46 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 7. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011 The pupils show low interest in the English Language.Our observation from sitting in at the mathematics lesson in this school showed that the pupils did notunderstand English at all. The way they watched the teacher teach them in English showed that they did noteven have interest in the English-medium. They were all from Hausa extraction and only speak Hausa athome, and Yoruba, only when they are interacting with pupils from Yoruba extraction. Their major languageis Hausa while their second language is Yoruba. As a result of this, the teacher used Yoruba and Hausa asmedia of instruction.3.3 Other Languages Teachers used in Mathematics Classrooms in Ile-IfeTable 2 shows the other languages used in the schools sampled.Question 2a was asked to find out the other languages used by the teachers during mathematics lessons.The data collected show that all the five teachers responded to the question. The table above shows thatYoruba is the other language mostly used in the schools surveyed. Four teachers (80%) claimed that theyused Yoruba while one teacher (20%) claimed that he used English. Our observation shows that the fourteachers used Yoruba as a supplement because majority of the pupils in their classrooms were of Yorubaextraction. The only teacher that indicated that he used English as an additional language had pupils fromHausa extraction. As noted earlier, the pupils did not understand English and solely relied on Hausa theirmother tongue. The teacher, thus, taught in Hausa and Yoruba in order to make the pupils learn, andoccasionally switched to English when the content could not be interpreted in both Yoruba and Hausa.3.4 Reasons for the Teachers’ Choices in Question 2aQuestion 2b was asked to find out the reasons for the preferences of the teachers in question 2a. The teacherfrom Anglican Central Primary School, Ilare, Ile-Ife said that she used Yoruba because “it makes the lessonmore effective. The Pupils will be able to contribute more to the lesson”. According to her, the use ofYoruba makes her teaching effective, such that the pupils will be made to learn in the language they arefamiliar with. As a result, they will be able to give their feedback in the language they understand fluently.Through this, the teacher is able to really determine which pupil is doing well and which of them is not doingwell.The teacher from Ansarul Islam Primary School, Sabo, Ile-Ife said that she used Yoruba “to enable themunderstand very well. It facilitates the teaching of mathematics.” From the response of this teacher, wecould observe that the teacher used Yoruba to help the pupils understand what she taught them in English.The teacher believed that a subject such as mathematics needed to be taught in a language that the pupils werefamiliar with.The teacher from St Bernard Primary School, Lagere, Ile-Ife said that she used Yoruba because “the best wayto teach the pupils effectively is to interpret what you teach them in Yoruba, their mother tongue”. Thisteacher believed that the best way to teach pupils mathematics is by using their mother tongue as the mediumof instruction. This is also the idea of the two teachers discussed earlier.Similarly, the teacher from St Peters Anglican Primary School ‘A’, Sabo, Ile-Ife said that she used Yoruba“to arouse their interest because it is their mother tongue.” This teacher believed that the best way to attractthe pupils’ attention in the classroom is by using their mother tongue. This makes the pupils feel at home and47 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 8. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011forget the tension and anxiety they usually have in their English classroom. It is worthy of note that speakingEnglish in answering questions in English could be a dilemma for a pupil. However, answering questions orgiving comments in Yoruba makes things easier for the pupils, and even, the teachers.The teacher from Methodist Primary School, Sabo, Ile-Ife is the only teacher who indicated that he usedEnglish as an additional language. The reason he gave was that “English is an official language. So, mustforce them to learn it.” Our observation during the lesson was that English was used only when someconcepts could not be taught in Yoruba and Hausa.3.5 Pupils’ Language ChoicesTable 3 shows pupils’ language preferences in the schools sampled in Ile-Ife.The table above shows that all the pupils preferred being taught mathematics in their mother tongues toEnglish in order to learn effectively. From the responses of the pupils, we observe that a higher percentage ofthe pupils, 40 (90.9%) of the 44 pupils interviewed said they preferred Yoruba, while 4 (9.1%) of the 44pupils said they preferred Hausa. No pupil indicated any interest in the medium of English and codeswitching. Just like the teachers’ claim that the pupils learnt better in their mother tongues, the pupils, in turn,believed that being taught in their mother tongue had great gain. Their preferences could also be linked totheir teachers’ use of CS in the schools and their inability to speak and understand English well. Theirsocio-cultural background is another factor.3.6 Code Switching in Mathematics ClassroomTable 4 shows the evidence of CS in the schools surveyed.Question 4a was asked to find out if teachers code switch during their lessons. The data show that all the fiveteachers responded to the question and they all said they do code switch while giving their lessons. Ourobservation and record also show that CS was used throughout the lessons and by both the teachers and thepupils. In other words, Yoruba-English CS and Yoruba-Hausa CS are practised in public primary schools inIle-Ife.3.7 Reasons for Code SwitchingQuestion 4b was asked to find out why teachers code switch in their lessons. The data collected show that theteachers had different reasons for code switching. The following quotations are the reasons given by theteachers. The schools are used to represent the teachers.3.7.1 Anglican Central Primary School, Ilare, Ile-Ife To be more effective. To be more interesting. The pupils will be able to share their interests.The teacher in this school claimed that she used code switching so that her lesson would be effective. In otherwords, teaching a lesson in the language the pupils understood well would make the lesson effective. Thepupils would understand what the teacher was teaching them. Our observation and record show that thepupils showed some enthusiasm and readiness to learn in their mother tongue. They were also able to answer48 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 9. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011some of the questions asked by the teacher. It was also observed that the lesson was interesting and the pupilswere able to share their thoughts with the teacher.3.7.2 Ansarul Islam Primary School, Sabo, Ile-Ife To be able to impact the knowledge thoroughly and the pupils will understand better.The teacher in this school claimed to use CS so that she would be able to impact the knowledge ofmathematics, or better still, the content and concepts of mathematics well on the pupils for betterunderstanding. This complements the findings of Salami (2008) and Cummins (2000) that a child learnsbetter when he is taught in his mother tongue. This is because the child is familiar with his mother tongue.3.7.3 Methodist Primary School, Sabo, Ile-Ife I use the languages in explaining the subject.The teacher in this school claimed that he used two languages – Hausa and Yoruba in his lessons. Ourobservation show that he used Hausa to explain the content while he used Yoruba to list and enumeratepoints. For instance, the teacher listed 1, 2, 3, etc in Yoruba as Ookan, Eeji, Eeta, etc and explained them inHausa as Daya, Biu, Huku, etc.3.7.4 St. Bernard Primary School, Lagere, Ile-Ife I use the two languages where the pupils cannot understand the lesson.The teacher in this school claimed that she alternated between English and Yoruba when the pupils did notunderstand the content in English. However, our observation and record show that the teacher used CSthroughout the lesson. Our observation also reveals that the main reason why the teacher employed CS was tomake the pupils understand the lesson well. The teacher’s claim could be right in this regard.3.7.5 St. Peters Anglican Primary School ‘A’, Sabo, Ile-Ife To let the pupils participate fully in the lesson. I also use it for more understanding and explanation.The teacher in this school claimed that she used CS in the classroom so as to carry the pupils along and tomake them participate well in the learning process. Our observation and record show that the teacher’s reasonwas justified. The pupils showed interest in the lesson and they responded to the teacher’s questions. Ourobservation and record also show that the teacher used CS to explain and to make the pupils understand thecontent he was teaching them. The teacher claimed he was aware of the success of the Six-Year PrimaryProject carried out in Ile-Ife and this was the motivation she had for teaching the pupils in their mothertongue.3.8 Implications of Code Switching in the Schools SurveyedQuestion 5 was asked to find out the implications of CS in the schools surveyed. The implications of CS ineach school are discussed below.49 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 10. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 20113.8.1 Anglican Central Primary School, Ilare, Ile-IfeThe teacher we interviewed in this school said that CS improves the pupils’ academic performance; and as aresult of it, many of them scored high marks in their class work and continuous assessment. Our observationshow that the pupils responded well to the teacher’s questions.3.8.2 Ansarul Islam Primary School, Sabo, Ile-IfeThe teacher we interviewed in the school said that CS aided teaching and learning in the school. The teacheremphasized that she used CS to make them understand the contents thoroughly. She added that using CSmade the pupils to have interest in mathematics. Our observation showed that CS aided the teaching andlearning of mathematics in the classroom. The teacher was able to teach well and fluently. The pupils werealso able to respond to the teacher’s questions. The pupils were at home with the use of Yoruba during thelesson and this really aroused their interest in the lesson. Another interesting thing we observed was that thepupils always expected the teacher to explain in Yoruba whenever they didn’t understand a particular aspectof the lesson. It seems that the use of CS in multilingual classrooms is more effective than teaching inEnglish-only medium.3.8.3 Methodist Primary School, Sabo, Ile-IfeThe teacher we interviewed in this school said that the pupils were not ready to learn in English because theirminds were biased. As a result of this, he compared English with Hausa when teaching them. This is becausethe pupils were of Hausa extraction. Our observation showed that the pupils didn’t understand English. Theycould only speak Hausa and Yoruba fluently. Thus, learning in the medium of Hausa and Yoruba make themmore comfortable with the teacher and the lesson. The teacher in turn alternated between Yoruba and Hausato make sure that the pupils understood what he was teaching them.3.8.4 St. Bernard Primary School, Lagere, Ile-IfeThe teacher we interviewed in this school said that the use of CS in the school was effective. She said that theuse of code switching in the lessons gave the pupils understanding of the content being taught. She also saidthat alternating between English and Yoruba enabled her to explain to the pupils very well, and as a result, thepupils had retentive memory.Our observation shows that the teacher code switched at some key points, when explaining importantconcepts, when the pupils were getting distracted and when praising and reprimanding them. The use of CS inthis classroom reduced the overall comprehension burden and made it easier for the pupils to concentrate onthe message conveyed.3.8.5 St. Peters Anglican Primary School ‘A’, Sabo, Ile-IfeThe teacher we interviewed in this school said that the use of code switching in the school enabled the pupilsto understand the contents being taught very well. She said that CS also enabled the pupils to participate wellin the classroom. Our observation also shows that the use of CS in this classroom gave room for the teacher tomaintain solidarity and express emotional understanding with the pupils by switching to their mother tongue.This also contributed to the smooth flow of the classroom interaction and communication.3.9 Summary of Findings50 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 11. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011The study has shown a number of interesting outcomes. First, the study has demonstrated that English and themother tongue (here, Yoruba and Hausa) are still being used in upper classes in public primary schools inNigeria. This finding is similar to Salami’s (2008) study, where he finds that English and the mother tongue(Yoruba) are being used variably across the curriculum and across classes and levels in primary schools inIle-Ife.Moreover, contrary to the claims of the teachers interviewed that they use English as the main language ofinstruction, our observation revealed that they use CS, where Yoruba is the main (matrix) language andEnglish is the additional (embedded) language. Perhaps these teachers claimed to use English as the mainlanguage so that they would not be seen as not following what the National Policy on Education stipulates. Inthe case of the teacher in Methodist primary school, Sabo, his claim was right. He used Hausa and Yoruba asthe main (Matrix) languages, while English was used as an additional (embedded) language.Furthermore, the pupils used both languages freely in during classroom interaction as they responded to theteacher’s questions and the researchers’ questions, thus communicating in a natural and effective way. Theuse of code switching allowed each pupil to use each of his/her languages in a natural and meaningful way asthe various classroom activities were being implemented.In addition, the teachers in the study used their perceptions of their pupils’ proficiency in each language,especially their mother tongue, to enhance communication, teaching and learning of mathematics as theyused either or both or all the languages appropriately. Code-switching was also found to enhancecommunication as the class participants strived to relate their thoughts to others who had varyingproficiencies in the mother tongue and English.Again, The findings of this study challenge the view of CS as a sign of communicative incompetence.Instead, it calls for attention from teachers, parents, and educators to draw on children’s language resources tohelp students achieve academic and communicative competence.In the interactions between teachers and pupils, CS functions as a communicative strategy to clarify orreinforce the speaker’s point, overcoming the gap of linguistic competence between the two languages.Moreover, CS is employed to meet the classroom communicative and linguistic need for appropriate word ora lack of appropriate expression due to different cultural values.Finally, code-switching was found to have a function of facilitating and supporting thinking andcommunication, no matter how the information, concept or content may appear. An important finding is thatthe pupils should share the same mother tongue, if code switching will be applied effectively. In this respect,the competence of the teacher in mother tongue of the pupils also plays a vital role, if positive contributions ofcode switching are expected.With respect to all points mentioned above, it may be suggested that code switching in language classroom isnot always a blockage or deficiency in learning a language, but may be considered as a useful strategy inclassroom interaction, if the aim is to make meaning clear and to transfer the knowledge to students in anefficient way. In this case one language might help the other, and sometimes both together may create a newidea, image, thought, behaviour, outlook, organization, and adaptation, and thus move culture to newadaptive places in the dynamics of cross-cultural life.51 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 12. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 20114. ConclusionOur findings in this study are going to open new aspects of research for linguists to examine the relevance ofcode switching as a learning resource in Nigerian primary schools. The study offers useful suggestions tomathematics teachers on how to promote effective teaching and learning process.The study also makes it possible for Nigerian primary school teachers and learners to use CS and enjoy itseducational benefits in a multilingual classroom where pupils have low English proficiency and limitedmaterial resources in the mother tongue.ReferencesAdegbite, W. (2003), “Enlightenment and Attitudes of the Nigerian Elite on the Role of Languages inNigeria”, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16(2), 185-196.Adegbija, E. (1994), Language Attitudes in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Sociolinguistic Overview. Clevedon:Multilingual Matters.Adler, J. (1998), “A Language of Teaching Dilemmas: Unlocking the Complex Multilingual SecondaryMathematics Classroom”, For the Learning of Mathematics, 18, 24-33.Adler, J. (2001), Teaching Mathematics in Multilingual Classrooms. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press.Afolayan, A. (1999), “The Alienated Role of the Mother Tongue in Literacy Education for SustainableNational Development: The Western Nigerian Yoruba Example”, Proceedings of the 1st Pan-AfricanReading for all Conference, Pretoria, South Africa, 70-88.Ajayi, M. A. & Oyetayo, M. O. (2002), “Literacy and Language Policy in Nigeria”, Literacy and Reading inNigeria, 9(2), 61-69.Akinnaso, F. N. (1993), “Policy and Experiment in Mother Tongue Literacy in Nigeria”, InternationalReview of Education, 39, 255-285.Babajide, A. O. (2001), “Language Attitude Patterns of Nigerians”, in Igboanusi, H. (ed), Language Attitudeand Language Conflict in West Africa, Ibadan: Enicrownfit, pp. 1-13.Bambgose, A. (1994), “Fifteen Years of the National Policy on Education: How Far Has Language Fared?”,in Adegbite, W & Onukaogu, C. (eds), Language in Education in Nigeria: Some Critical Perspectives, InHonour of Professor Adebisi Afolayan, Ile-Ife: Centre for Language in Education and Development(CELED), O.A.U.Cloud, N. Genesee, F. Hamayan, E. (2000), Dual Language Instruction. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.Cummins, J. (2000), “Educational Implications of Mother Tongue Maintenance in Minority LanguageGroup”, Canadian Modern Language Review, 38:503-516.52 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 13. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011Fafunwa, B. A. (1998), “Using National Language in Education: A Challenge to African Educators inUNESCO-UNICEF”. African Thoughts on the Prospects of Education for All: Selection From PapersCommissioned for the Regional Consultation on Education for All, Dakar, 27-30.Howie, S. J. (2003), Language and other Background Factors Affecting Secondary Pupils Performance inMathematics in South Africa. [Online] Available:http://www.up.ac.za/dspace/bitstream/2263/4915/1/Howie_Language(2003).pdf (April 28, 2008)Kyeyune, R. (2003), “Challenges of Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Multilingual Contexts: AView from Ugandan Classrooms”. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16(2), 173-184.Moschkovich, J. (2004), Using Two Languages When Learning Mathematics. [Online] Available:http://math.arizona.edu/~cemela/spanish/content/workingpapers/UsingTwoLanguages.pdf (March 20, 2008)Musau, M. (2003), “Linguistic Human Rights in Africa: Challenges and Prospects for Indigenous Languagesin Kenya”, Language, Culture and Curriculum, 16(2).Myers-Scotton, C. (1995), Social Motivations for Code Switching: Evidence from Africa. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.Ncoko, S. O. S., Osman, R. & Cockcroft, K. (2000), “Code Switching among Multilingual Learners inPrimary Schools in South Africa: An Exploratory Study”, International Journal of Bilingual Education andBilingualism, 3(4), 225-241.Odumuh, T. O. (2002), “Mother Tongue Education at the Lower Primary School in FCT, Abuja: The State ofthe Art”, in Lawal, A, Isiugo-Abanihe, I. & Ohia, I. N. (eds), Perspectives on Applied Linguistics inLanguage and Literature, In honour of Professor Ephraim Ebolinye Ubahakwe, Ibadan: Stirling-Horden, pp.255-264.Omoniyi, T. (2003), “Local Policies and Global Forces: Multiliteracy and Africa’s Indegenous Languages”.Language Policy, 2, 133-152.Plüddemann, P., Mati, X. & Mahlalela-Thusi, B. (1999), Problems and Possibilities in MultilingualClassrooms in the Western Cape. Cape Town: PRAESA.Putz, M. (2004), “Can a ‘Foreign’ Language Be a National Medium of Education? Linguistic Equality andEcology in Namibia”. In K. Bromber & B. Smieja (eds) Globalisation and African languages: Risks andbenefits, Berlin, Germany: De Gruyter, pp. 65-84.Salami, L. O. (2008). ‘It Is Still Double Take’: Mother Tongue Education and Bilingual Classroom Practicein Nigeria, Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 6(4), 1-23.Setati, M. (1998), “Code-Switching and Mathematical Meaning in a Senior Primary Class of SecondLanguage Learners”, For the Learning of Mathematics, 18, 1, 34-40.Setati, M. and Adler, J. (2001), Between Languages and Discourses: Code Switching Practices in PrimaryClassrooms in South Africa. [Online] Available: http://www.mai.liu.se/~chber/workshop/Setati&Adler.pdf(March 19, 2008)53 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
    • 14. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 10, 2011Setati, M., Adler, J., Reed, Y., & Bapoo, A. (2002), Incomplete Journeys: Code switching and otherLanguage Practices in Mathematics, Science and English Language Classrooms in South Africa. [Online]Available: http://www.multilingual-matters.net/le/016/0128/le0160128.pdf (March 10, 2008)Tabors, P., & Snow, C. (2001), “Young Bilingual Children and Early Literacy Development”, in Neuman, S.B. & Dickinson, D. K. (eds), Handbook of Early Literacy Research, New York: The Guilford Press, pp.159-178.54 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
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